Accountability of teachers and schools : a value-added approach.

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Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah
Keeves, John Philip
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International Education Journal
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Currently, there has been substantial interest, in Australia and internationally, in policy activities related to outcomes-based educational performance indicators and their link with growing demands for accountability of teachers and schools. In order to achieve a fair comparison between schools, it is commonly agreed that a correction should be made for lack of equity. It is argued that student performance is influenced by three general factors: the student background, classroom and school context, and identified school policies and practices. In this article the effects of these three factors on science achievement among students in Canberra, Australia have been addressed. The effects are discussed with reference to Type A, Type B, Type X, and Type Z effects. Type A effects are school effectiveness indicators controlled for student background. Type B school effects are controlled for both student background and context variables. Type X effects are estimated with student effects, context effects and non-malleable policy effects controlled for. Finally, Type Z effects invoke school effectiveness indicators, controlled for student, context, and all identified policy effects. [Author abstract]
Outcome based education, Quality indicators, Academic achievement
Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah & Keeves, John (2006) Accountability of teachers and schools : a value-added approach. International Education Journal 7(2)