Barriers to HIV testing among male clients of female sex workers in Indonesia

dc.contributor.authorFauk, Nelsensius Klau
dc.contributor.authorSukmawati, Anastasia S
dc.contributor.authorBerek, Pius A L
dc.contributor.authorKristanti, Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorWardojo, Sri S I
dc.contributor.authorCahaya, Isaias B
dc.contributor.authorMwanri, Lillian
dc.description© The Author(s). 2018 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.description.abstractAbstract Background Frequent engagement of men in sexual encounters with female sex workers (FSWs) without using condoms places them at a high risk for HIV infection. HIV testing has been noted to be among important strategies to prevent HIV transmission and acquisition. However, it is known that not all men willingly undertake an HIV test as a way to prevent HIV transmission and/or acquisition. This study aimed to identify barriers to accessing HIV testing services among men who are clients of FSWs (clients) in Belu and Malaka districts, Indonesia. Methods A qualitative inquiry employing face to face open ended interviews was conducted from January to April 2017. The participants (n = 42) were clients of FSWs recruited using purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Data were analysed using a qualitative data analysis framework. Results Findings indicated three main barriers of accessing HIV testing services by clients. These included: (1) personal barriers (lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and HIV testing availability, and unwillingness to undergo HIV testing due to low self-perceived risk of HIV and fear of the test result); (2) health care service provision barriers (lack of trust in health professionals and limited availability of medication including antiretroviral (ARV)); and (3) social barriers (stigma and discrimination, and the lack of social supports). Conclusions These findings indicated multilevelled barriers to accessing HIV testing services among participants, who are known to be among key population groups in HIV care. Actions to improve HIV/AIDS-related health services accessibility are required. The dissemination of the knowledge and information on HIV/AIDS and improved available of HIV/AIDS-related services are necessary actions to improve the personal levelled barriers. System wide barriers will need improved practices and health policies to provide patients friendly and accessible services. The societal levelled barriers will need a more broad societal approach including raising awareness in the community and enhanced discussions about HIV/AIDS issues in order to normalise HIV in the society.en_US
dc.identifier.citationInternational Journal for Equity in Health. 2018 May 30;17(1):68
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.rights© The Author(s). 2018
dc.rights.holderThe Author(s).
dc.subjectHIV testing
dc.subjectMale clients of FSWs
dc.subjectFemale sex workers
dc.subjectAcquired immune deficiency syndrome
dc.titleBarriers to HIV testing among male clients of female sex workers in Indonesia
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