Information theory and atrial fibrillation (AF): a review

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Dharmaprani, Dhani
Dykes, Lukah
McGavigan, Andrew D
Kuklik, Pawel
Pope, Kenneth
Ganesan, Anand N
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Frontiers Media
Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disorder seen in hospitals and in general practice, accounting for up to a third of arrhythmia related hospitalizations. Unfortunately, AF treatment is in practice complicated by the lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying the arrhythmia, which makes detection of effective ablation targets particularly difficult. Various approaches to AF mapping have been explored in the hopes of better pinpointing these effective targets, such as Dominant Frequency (DF) analysis, complex fractionated electrograms (CFAE) and unipolar reconstruction (FIRM), but many of these methods have produced conflicting results or require further investigation. Exploration of AF using information theoretic-based approaches may have the potential to provide new insights into the complex system dynamics of AF, whilst also providing the benefit of being less reliant on empirically derived definitions in comparison to alternate mapping approaches. This work provides an overview of information theory and reviews its applications in AF analysis, with particular focus on AF mapping. The works discussed in this review demonstrate how understanding AF from a signal property perspective can provide new insights into the arrhythmic phenomena, which may have valuable clinical implications for AF mapping and ablation in the future.
Note: This article was submitted to Computational Physiology and Medicine, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
information theory, atrial fibrillation, entropy, AF mapping, catheter ablation
Dharmaprani, D., Dykes, L., McGavigan, A.D., Kuklik, P., Pope, K. and Ganesan, A.N., (2018). Information theory and atrial fibrillation (AF): a review. Front. Physiol. 9:957. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00957.