XPS and NEXAFS study of fluorine modified TiO2 nano-ovoids reveals dependence of Ti3+ surface population on the modifying agent

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Date
2014-04-15
Authors
Ruzicka, Jan-Yves
Abu Bakar, Faridah
Thomsen, Lars
Cowie, Bruce C
McNicoll, Campbell
Kemmitt, Tim
Brand, Helen E A
Ingham, Bridget
Andersson, Gunther
Golovko, Vladimir B
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Publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry
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This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014
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The Royal Society of Chemistry
Abstract
Crystalline titanium dioxide was synthesised under mild conditions by the thermal degradation of peroxotitanic acid in the presence of a number of fluoride-containing surface modifying agents (NH4F, NH4BF4, NH4PF6, NBu4F, NBu4BF4, NBu4PF6). The resulting materials were characterised by PXRD, SEM, HRTEM, XPS and NEXAFS. Particle phase, size, and surface area were noticeably affected by the choice of surface modifying agent. Both the cation and anion comprising the modifying agent affect the surface Ti3+ population of the materials, with two apparent trends observed: F− > BF4− > PF6− and NBu4+ > NH4+. All materials displayed evidence of fluorine doping on their surfaces, although no evidence of bulk doping was observed.
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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
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Citation
Ruzicka, J., Bakar, F., Thomsen, L., Cowie, B., McNicoll, C., Kemmitt, T., et al. (2014). XPS and NEXAFS study of fluorine modified TiO2 nano-ovoids reveals dependence of Ti3+ surface population on the modifying agent. RSC Advances, 4(40) pp. 20649-20658.