Correlations between Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and Genetic Instability in Cancer Patients- A Clinical Perspective Study

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Paz, Marcia Fernanda Correia Jardim
de Alencar, Marcus Vinicus Oliveira Barros
Gomes, Antonio Luiz Jr
Machado, Keylla da Conceicao
Islam, Muhammad Torequl
Ali, Eunus S
Shill, Manik Chandra
Ahmed, Md. Iqbal
Uddin, Shaikh Jamal
da Mata, Ana Maria Oliveira Ferreira
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Molecular epidemiological studies have identified several risk factors linking to the genes and external factors in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In this sense, genetic instability caused by DNA damage and DNA repair inefficiencies are important molecular events for the diagnosis and prognosis of therapies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze correlation between sociocultural, occupational, and lifestyle risk factors with levels of genetic instability in non-neoplastic cells of breast cancer patients. Total 150 individuals were included in the study that included 50 breast cancer patients submitted to chemotherapy (QT), 50 breast cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT), and 50 healthy women without any cancer. Cytogenetic biomarkers for apoptosis and DNA damage were evaluated in samples of buccal epithelial and peripheral blood cells through micronuclei and comet assay tests. Elder age patients (61–80 years) had higher levels of apoptosis (catriolysis by karyolysis) and DNA damage at the diagnosis (baseline damage) with increased cell damage during QT and especially during RT. We also reported the increased frequencies of cytogenetic biomarkers in patients who were exposed to ionizing radiation as well as for alcoholism and smoking. QT and RT induced high levels of fragmentation (karyorrhexis) and nuclear dissolution (karyolysis) and DNA damage. Correlations were observed between age and karyorrhexis at diagnosis; smoking and karyolysis during RT; and radiation and karyolysis during QT. These correlations indicate that risk factors may also influence the genetic instability in non-neoplastic cells caused to the patients during cancer therapies.
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breast cancer, risk factors, genetic instability, apoptosis,, chemotherapy,, toxicogenomics
Paz MFCJ, de Alencar MVOB, Gomes Junior AL, da Conceição Machado K, Islam MT, Ali ES, Shill MC, Ahmed MI, Uddin SJ, da Mata AMOF, de Carvalho RM, da Conceição Machado K, Sobral ALP, da Silva FCC, de Castro e Souza JM, Arcanjo DDR, Ferreira PMP, Mishra SK, da Silva J and de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante AA (2018) Correlations between Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and Genetic Instability in Cancer Patients— A Clinical Perspective Study. Front. Genet. 8:236. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2017.00236