ItemAn examination of award wages among Australian apprentices and trainees(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Oliver, DamianLow rates of award pay for apprentices have been seen as discouraging young people from starting an apprenticeship as well as contributing to low completion rates. This criticism, however, assumes that few apprentices receive above-award payments. Analysis of data from the 2009 Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Survey of Education and Training finds that over-award payments for apprentices are common, especially in the electrotechnology, automotive, and engineering trades. Most trainees also receive over-award payments, particularly existing workers, older trainees, and male trainees. In most cases, the relevant award wage for apprentices and trainees is below the national minimum wage. More importantly, the method for determining the apprentice award wage in most cases does not take into account age or level of schooling, even though apprentices are increasingly older and are more likely to have completed Year 12. This has led to a decline in the apprentice award wage, relative to the applicable award wage in alternative employment. ItemBeyond our control: labour adjustment in response to the global recession by multinational auto companies in Australia(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Auer, Peter; Clibborn, Stephen; Lansbury, Russell DIn response to the global recession, many multinational companies (MNCs) in the auto industry adjusted labour levels in their plants around the world. This paper examines the responses of Ford, GM, and Bosch in relation to plants in their home countries and in their subsidiary companies in Australia. The case studies revealed the emergence of 'hybrid' forms of employment relations practices among these MNCs, which were the product of convergence around commercial imperatives, as well as divergence due to the roles played by governments and trade unions in the respective countries. ItemDoes immigration policy affect the education--occupation mismatch? Evidence from Australia(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Tani, MassimilianoThis article analyses the impact of a change in Australia's immigration policy, introduced on 1 July 1999, on migrants' probability of being over- or under-educated or correctly matched. The policy change consists of stricter entry requirements about age, language ability, education, and work experience. The results indicate that those who entered under more stringent conditions, the second cohort, have a lower probability to be over-educated and a correspondingly higher probability of being better matched than those in the first cohort. The policy change appears to have reduced the incidence of over-education among women, enhanced the relevance of being educated in Australia to being correctly matched, and has attracted a higher proportion of immigrants who were already under-utilised (or over-achieving) in their home countries. Overall, the policy appears to have brought immigrants that reduced the education mismatch in Australia's labour market. ItemKeynes versus the Classics in the 1970s(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Isaac, JThe wage inflation and unemployment in Australia during the 1970s have been analysed by many writers. With the benefit of hindsight, this paper examines the facts and assumptions of earlier writings in connection with various questions - whether centralisation of wage determination was a factor in the wage inflation, the circumstances leading to the wage indexation system, why the system failed, and whether reduced trade union density and enterprise bargaining after the 1990s were responsible for more moderate wage increases and reduced industrial strife. The paper notes the neglect in earlier discussion of the importance of trade protection and globalisation in the operation of the labour market.