Ophthalmology, Eye and Vision Research Collected Works
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ItemThe genetic and clinical landscape of nanophthalmos and posterior microphthalmos in an Australian cohort(Wiley, 2020-05)Nanophthalmos and posterior microphthalmos are ocular abnormalities in which both eyes are abnormally small, and typically associated with extreme hyperopia. We recruited 40 individuals from 13 kindreds with nanophthalmos or posterior microphthalmos, with 12 probands subjected to exome sequencing. Nine probands (69.2%) were assigned a genetic diagnosis, with variants in MYRF , TMEM98 , MFRP , and PRSS56 . Two of four PRSS56 families harbored the previously described c.1066dupC variant implicated in over half of all reported PRSS56 kindreds, with different surrounding haplotypes in each family suggesting a mutational hotspot. Individuals with a genetic diagnosis had shorter mean axial lengths and higher hyperopia than those without, with recessive forms associated with the most extreme phenotypes. These findings detail the genetic architecture of nanophthalmos and posterior microphthalmos in a cohort of predominantly European ancestry, their relative clinical phenotypes, and highlight the shared genetic architecture of rare and common disorders of refractive error.
ItemAn Intraocular Pressure Polygenic Risk Score Stratifies Multiple Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Parameters Including Treatment Intensity(Elsevier, 2020-01)Purpose To examine the combined effects of common genetic variants associated with intraocular pressure (IOP) on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) phenotype using a polygenic risk score (PRS) stratification. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants For the primary analysis, we examined the glaucoma phenotype of 2154 POAG patients enrolled in the Australian and New Zealand Registry of Advanced Glaucoma, including patients recruited from the United Kingdom. For replication, we examined an independent cohort of 624 early POAG patients. Methods Using IOP genome-wide association study summary statistics, we developed a PRS derived solely from IOP-associated variants and stratified POAG patients into 3 risk tiers. The lowest and highest quintiles of the score were set as the low- and high-risk groups, respectively, and the other quintiles were set as the intermediate risk group. Main Outcome Measures Clinical glaucoma phenotype including maximum recorded IOP, age at diagnosis, number of family members affected by glaucoma, cup-to-disc ratio, visual field mean deviation, and treatment intensity. Results A dose–response relationship was found between the IOP PRS and the maximum recorded IOP, with the high genetic risk group having a higher maximum IOP by 1.7 mmHg (standard deviation [SD], 0.62 mmHg) than the low genetic risk group (P = 0.006). Compared with the low genetic risk group, the high genetic risk group had a younger age of diagnosis by 3.7 years (SD, 1.0 years; P < 0.001), more family members affected by 0.46 members (SD, 0.11 members; P < 0.001), and higher rates of incisional surgery (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–2.0; P = 0.007). No statistically significant difference was found in mean deviation. We further replicated the maximum IOP, number of family members affected by glaucoma, and treatment intensity (number of medications) results in the early POAG cohort (P ≤ 0.01). Conclusions The IOP PRS was correlated positively with maximum IOP, disease severity, need for surgery, and number of affected family members. Genes acting via IOP-mediated pathways, when considered in aggregate, have clinically important and reproducible implications for glaucoma patients and their close family members.
ItemBiallelic CPAMD8 Variants Are a Frequent Cause of Childhood and Juvenile Open-Angle Glaucoma(Elsevier, 2020-01)Purpose Developmental abnormalities of the ocular anterior segment in some cases can lead to ocular hypertension and glaucoma. CPAMD8 is a gene of unknown function recently associated with ocular anterior segment dysgenesis, myopia, and ectopia lentis. We sought to assess the contribution of biallelic CPAMD8 variants to childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Design Retrospective, multicenter case series. Participants A total of 268 probands and their relatives with a diagnosis of childhood or juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Purpose Developmental abnormalities of the ocular anterior segment in some cases can lead to ocular hypertension and glaucoma. CPAMD8 is a gene of unknown function recently associated with ocular anterior segment dysgenesis, myopia, and ectopia lentis. We sought to assess the contribution of biallelic CPAMD8 variants to childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma. Methods Patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment, with DNA from patients and their relatives subjected to genome, exome, or capillary sequencing. CPAMD8 RNA expression analysis was performed on tissues dissected from cadaveric human eyes. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic yield within a cohort of childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma, prevalence and risk of ophthalmic phenotypes, and relative expression of CPAMD8 in the human eye. Results We identified rare (allele frequency < 4×10−5) biallelic CPAMD8 variants in 5.7% (5/88) of probands with childhood glaucoma and 2.1% (2/96) of probands with juvenile open-angle glaucoma. When including family members, we identified 11 individuals with biallelic variants in CPAMD8 from 7 unrelated families. Nine of these individuals were diagnosed with glaucoma (9/11, 81.8%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 9.22±14.89 years, and all individuals with glaucoma required 1 or more incisional procedures to control high intraocular pressure. Iris abnormalities were observed in 9 of 11 individuals, cataract was observed in 8 of 11 individuals (72.7%), and retinal detachment was observed in 3 of 11 individuals (27.3%). CPAMD8 expression was highest in neural crest–derived tissues of the adult anterior segment, suggesting that CPAMD8 variation may cause malformation or obstruction of key drainage structures. Conclusions Biallelic CPAMD8 variation was associated with a highly heterogeneous phenotype and in our cohorts was the second most common inherited cause of childhood glaucoma after CYP1B1 and juvenile open-angle glaucoma after MYOC. CPAMD8 sequencing should be considered in the investigation of both childhood and juvenile open-angle glaucoma, particularly when associated with iris abnormalities, cataract, or retinal detachment.
ItemIntraocular Chemotherapy for Vitreoretinal Lymphoma: a review(Wiley, 2019-11-03)Vitreoretinal lymphomas are rare ocular cancers, and the subset of primary central nervous system lymphomas that are based in the posterior eye. These tumours are challenging to treat, and today management generally involves a multispecialty team coordinating a treatment protocol that may include intraocular chemotherapy, ocular irradiation, systemic chemotherapy and/or autologous stem cell transplantation. The ophthalmologist has specific responsibility for the intraocular chemotherapy, which is delivered to the eye by intravitreal injection. The most commonly injected drugs are methotrexate—an anti‐metabolite—and rituximab—an anti‐human B cell monoclonal antibody. A range of intraocular chemotherapy treatment schedules have been described in the medical literature, although to date there have been no randomized clinical trials of these schedules. In this article, we review the development and current status of intraocular chemotherapy for vitreoretinal lymphoma.
ItemPrimary congenital glaucoma due to paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 2 and CYP1B1 deletion(Wiley, 2019-08-01)Background: CYP1B1 variants and deletions are the most common cause of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Methods: We investigated an individual with PCG from the Australian and New Zealand Registry of Advanced Glaucoma. We performed sequencing of the CYP1B1 gene, followed by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and SNP array. Results: We identified a homozygous deletion of the CYP1B1 gene by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and confirmed that the father was heterozygous for a CYP1B1 deletion but the mother had normal gene copy number. SNP array identified paternal uniparental isodisomy of the entire chromosome 2. Conclusions: This study is the first report of a homozygous CYP1B1 whole gene deletion due to paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 2 as a cause of PCG. These results illustrate the importance of genetic testing in providing appropriate genetic counseling regarding the risks of recurrence.
ItemAutosomal dominant nanophthalmos and high hyperopia associated with a C-terminal frameshift variant in MYRF(Molecular Vision, 2019-09-21)Purpose: Nanophthalmos is a rare subtype of microphthalmia associated with high hyperopia and an increased risk of angle-closure glaucoma. We investigated the genetic cause of nanophthalmos and high hyperopia in an autosomal dominant kindred. Methods: A proband with short axial length, high hyperopia, and dextrocardia was subjected to exome sequencing. Human and rodent gene expression data sets were used to investigate the expression of relevant genes. Results: We identified a segregating heterozygous frameshift variant at the 3′ end of the penultimate exon of MYRF. Using Myc-MYRF chromatin immunoprecipitation data from rat oligodendrocytes, MYRF was found to bind immediately upstream of the transcriptional start site of Tmem98, a gene that itself has been implicated in autosomal dominant nanophthalmos. MYRF and TMEM98 were found to be expressed in the human retina, with a similar pattern of expression across several dissected human eye tissues. Conclusions: C-terminal variants in MYRF, which are expected to escape nonsense-mediated decay, represent a rare cause of autosomal dominant nanophthalmos with or without dextrocardia or congenital diaphragmatic hernia.