Volume 23, 2006

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    Book Reviews: Censored 2006 by Peter Phillips and Project Censored
    (Flinders University, 2006) Schiavone, Michael
    Book Reviews: Censored 2006 by Peter Phillips and Project Censored NY, London, Melbourne, Toronto: Seven Stories Press, 2005, 432pp.
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    Book Review: The Longest Decade by George Megalogenis
    (Flinders University, 2006) Manning, Haydon Richard
    Book Review: The Longest Decade by George Megalogenis, Carlton North: Scribe, 2006, 350pp.
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    Book Reviews: Will Dyson: Australia’s Radical Genius By Ross McMullin
    (Flinders University, 2006) Brooks, David
    Book Review: Will Dyson: Australia’s Radical Genius By Ross McMullin Carlton North: Scribe Publications, 2006, xiv + 414 pp.
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    Book Review: Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences by Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett
    (Flinders University, 2006) Manicom, James
    Book Review: Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences by Alexander L. George and Andrew Bennett Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005, 256 pp.
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    Book review: Is History Fiction? by Ann Curthoys & John Docker
    (Flinders University, 2006) Anderson, Jim
    Book Review: Is History Fiction? by Ann Curthoys & John Docker
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    Book review: The third try: can the UN work? by Alison Broinowski & James Wilkinson
    (Flinders University, 2006) Baba, Yasuko
    Book review: The Third Try: Can the UN Work? by Alison Broinowski & James Wilkinson Melbourne: Scribe, 2005, 308pp.
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    Official Channels or Public Action: Refugees in Australia
    (Flinders University, 2006) Herd, Andrew
    The release of the so-called Palmer Report, Inquiry into the Circumstances of the Immigration Detention of Cornelia Rau, again placed the Australian Government’s policies on immigration in the media. As with previous controversies over these policies, such as the ‘children-overboard’ incident, an inquiry was launched. This was seen by many refugee and mental illness advocates as an opportunity to obtain a measure of truth and justice. Were their hopes realized, or has the government managed to reduce the outrage felt in the community over this incident? The backfire model provides a theoretical tool for analysing how groups with power and authority, such as governments and corporations, inhibit the formation of outrage within the community after an unjustified use of power. The backfire model can also be used by activists to develop methods to counter groups with power and authority. This model can be used to analyse the treatment of refugees and immigration detainees in Australia. One of the methods examine in the backfire model is official channels, which contrary to popular opinion can be used by the government to suppress outrage. The Senate Select Committee into a Certain Maritime Incident and the Palmer Inquiry are shown below as examples of official channels used by the government in this manner. Also analysed in this paper is the change to the composition of the Australian Senate, which has led to a situation where inquiries are now less likely to be a useful tool for activists in their campaign for just treatment of refugees. The importance of public action by refugee support movements is subsequently analysed, demonstrating the importance of popular movements in bringing about changes to the Australian government’s immigration policy.
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    Never again my boy, never again’: Australian Soldiers’ Reactions to the South African War 1899-1902
    (Flinders University, 2006) Karageorgos, Effie
    The second South African War of 1899-1902 sparked widespread controversy in Australia, which in accounts of the war is usually represented by the jingoistic fervour by both civilians and volunteer soldiers on the departure of contingents for the front line. Reports of dissident opinion on the war were kept to a relative minimum in both the government and public domain in the years of the war, due mainly to the issue of ‘loyalty’ in society of the time, which prevented many from speaking out against the British Empire. Since its conclusion, and even from the late 1960s when various ‘revisionist’ accounts emerged, Australian literature on the war followed this ‘triumphalist’ approach. And, although recent studies do acknowledge elements of opposition, they have still been aligned more towards the triumphalist approach than any other. Such accounts deem the war one that enjoyed almost complete support by both the Australian public and the soldiers fighting in South Africa, during the entirety of the war. Soldiers’ accounts of the war, however, contain more subtlety than has been attributed to them, thus revealing their position on the war not to be as clearcut as has been claimed. This study revisits established perceptions on ‘public opinion’ and soldier dissidence during the war, and shows, by the examination of first-hand soldiers’ narratives and their relation to more recent theories on soldiering, the vital facets of soldier opinion neglected by these accounts.
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    National Identity Explored: Emigrant Italians in Australia and British Canada in WWI
    (Flinders University, 2006) Agutter, Karen Maree
    On 22nd May 1918, twenty armed military and South Australian state police converged on the small Australian town of Broken Hill and arrested in excess of forty Italian men of military age living and working in the mining town. These men were escorted to Adelaide for processing and deportation to Italy to serve with the Italian Army. As Mr. Finlayson, the Federal Member for Brisbane who witnessed the armed escort, later reported to the Australian Federal Parliament, this was “a sight that might be expected in Prussia”.But this was not Prussia; it was Australia, and these Italians, though allies in the war against Germany had proven reluctant to answer their country’s ‘call to arms’. The ensuing forced repatriation by the Australian Government of over five hundred Italian men in the last months of the War was a significant event for a country that had eschewed the conscription of its own citizens. By contrast, in Canada, from the time of Italy’s declaration of war, Italians volunteered in their hundreds to either return to Italy or to fight in the Canadian Expeditionary Forces (CEF). As early as August 1915, over five hundred had come forward in Ontario alone and they would continue to do so at the rate of thirty to thirty five a day.This paper analyses why Italian immigrants, living either in Australia or British speaking Canada during World War One, responded so differently to their country’s calls to arms, and why the respective governments treated their allies in such a contrasting manner.
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    Social Movement Unionism and the UE
    (Flinders University, 2006) Schiavone, Michael
    Social movement unionism has become the new buzzword for both the academic left and union reformers. As Ian Robinson noted, “… analysts and activists have begun applying the concept to organized labor in the United States, as a characterization of some unions within the larger movement, as an ideal towards which organized labor ought to be moving if it wishes to recapture lost economic and political power, or both”. However, whether social movement unionism is something new is open to serious doubt. This article gives a chronological overview of the United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America (UE) and whether it can be classified as a social movement union. Kim Moody stated that a current of social movement unionism was “… already at hand in unions such as … the United Electrical Workers in the US”, although he did not elaborate on this statement.2 Thus, this article seeks to determine whether Moody’s claim is correct. This article is divided into two main sections; in the first section, I argue that the UE’s polices and practices match the key components of Moody’s account of social movement unionism. However, in the second section by analysing the ideological conflict within the UE, union raids and government harassment of it, and in recent times, its campaign to keep Stewart-Warner’s Chicago plant open, I conclude that that social movement unionism alone will revive US unionism.
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    Islamic Student Organisation in Indonesia’s New Order
    (Flinders University, 2006) Karim, Abdul Gaffar
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    The "Democratisation" of the United Nations: A Critique of the UN Reform Agenda
    (Flinders University, 2006) Nichol, Andrew
    Democracy has increasingly become a touchstone for the legitimacy of all forms of political association. The charge of being “undemocratic” is no longer levelled only at nation states; the European Union and, now, the United Nations, are frequently described as suffering from a “democratic deficit”.1 According to its Secretary-General, the United Nations is facing a decisive moment in its 60-year history, and urgently requires far-reaching institutional reform. This article examines this current reform agenda, especially as it is reflected in the report of the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, the 2005 World Summit at UN Headquarters, and the recent creation of the Human Rights Council. It argues that current reform proposals are being driven by a misguided desire to democratise the UN and are flawed in several important respects. The first section examines calls for the democratisation of the Security Council. It argues that the High-level Panel provides no normative foundation to justify an expansion of the Security Council and that, far from increasing the body’s legitimacy and effectiveness, an expansion would be counterproductive. The second section suggests that the role of the UN should always be to reflect, rather than to subvert, contemporary geopolitical realities, and that it should not take on idealistic structure which is at odds with the pre-eminence of the United States. The third section argues that, rather than proposing amendments to the UN Charter, the reform agenda should focus on correcting the flawed system by which member states are elected to the UN’s various councils and committees. This more modest reform, which would not require Charter amendment, would improve the functioning of UN organs, including the Security Council and the Economic and Social Council—without engaging in the imprecise and dangerous rhetoric of democratisation.
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    Front matter
    (Flinders University, 2006)