ItemThree dimensional reconstructed MRI of an acrylic meniscal cartilage phantom: the effect of acquisition slice thickness upon accuracy of volume measurement(2004) Reynolds, Karen Jane; Kurmis, A P; Slavotinek, John Paul ItemA literature review of different pressure ulcer models from 1942-2005 and the development of an ideal animal model(2008) Smith, Anne-Louise; Reynolds, Karen Jane; Nguyen, Phuong Kim Thi ItemVessel calibre and haemoglobin effects on pulse oximetry(IOP Publishing, 2009) McEwen, Mark; Bull, Geoff; Reynolds, Karen JaneDespite its success as a clinical monitoring tool, pulse oximetry may be improved with respect to the need for empirical calibration and the reports of biases in readings associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and haemoglobin concentration. To effect this improvement, this work aims to improve the understanding of the photoplethysmography signal - as used by pulse oximeters, and investigates the effect of vessel calibre and haemoglobin concentration on pulse oximetry. The digital temperature and the transmission of a wide spectrum of light through the fingers of 57 people with known haemoglobin concentrations were measured, and simulations of the transmission of that spectrum of light through finger models were performed. Ratios of pulsatile attenuations of light as used in pulse oximetry were dependent upon peripheral temperature and on blood haemoglobin concentration. In addition, both the simulation and in vivo results showed that the pulsatile attenuation of light through fingers was approximately proportional to the absorption coefficients of blood, only when the absorption coefficients were small. These findings were explained in terms of discrete blood vessels acting as barriers to light transmission through tissue. Due to the influence of discrete blood vessels on light transmission, pulse oximeter outputs tend to be dependent upon haemoglobin concentration and on the calibre of pulsing blood vessels - which are affected by vasoconstriction/vasodilation. The effects of discrete blood vessels may account for part of the difference between the Beer–Lambert pulse oximetry model and empirical calibration. ItemCorrelated Poincare indices for measuring heart rate variability(The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine, 2007-12) Smith, Anne-Louise; Reynolds, Karen Jane; Owen, HarryPoincare indices are usually applied to HRV to summarise long data sets collected over 24 hrs. Many applications of HRV are interested in dynamic, short term changes (<1 min). This study uses Poincare indices published through the 1990's to the present, to determine which of them are correlated over the short term (25 beats). Dynamic changes were observed in 12 subjects preoperatively receiving fentanyl and midazolam sedation with ECG collected for 5 mins before and 5 mins after fentanyl administration. Poincare indices with a strong correlation (r>0.85) between the indices for each of the 12 subjects (p<0.001) (particularly with the common measures SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50 and meanRR) were identified. These indices will not be used for further investigation of dynamic effects of fentanyl and midazolam, two sedative drugs used in anaesthesia and intensive care. Indices that proved less suitable for short term analysis (eg, presence of outliers, inability to produce a valid index with smaller number of beats) were also identified. A shortlist of Poincare indices that do not correlate strongly with commonly used measures may prove interesting in determining dynamic characteristics of the effect of sedative drugs on autonomic nervous system activity. ItemNoninvasive detection of bilirubin using pulsatile absorption.(Australasian College Of Physical Scientists In Medicine, 2006-03) McEwen, Mark; Reynolds, Karen JaneBilirubin, the yellow substance usually responsible for neonatal jaundice, is currently monitored invasively or by observing/measuring skin colour. This paper investigates the feasibility of monitoring serum bilirubin concentration using light absorbance in a similar fashion to pulse oximetry. The light absorbance of bilirubin is shown to be sufficiently different to haemoglobin to in theory allow direct noninvasive serum bilirubin monitoring using light absorbance around 480nm.