Proceedings of the 5th Biennial International Conference of Greek Studies, 2003

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This volume of the fifth Biennial Conference Proceedings contains 35 refereed articles in English and Greek text, including articles on:

  • Classical Greek Philosophy
  • Greek Australian Literature
  • Modern Greek Literature
  • Contemporary History: Greeks and Cypriots at Home and Abroad
  • Modern Greek Language and Culture in Australian Schools
  • Aspects of Greek Culture Past and Present
  • Greek Australian Education
  • Greek Australian Politics
  • Linguistics
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      Σκιές, αντικατοπτρισμοί και αναδίπλωση: Η μυθοπλαστική “περιπέτεια” του Στέλιου Ξεφλούδα
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Palaktsoglou, Maria
      Please note: This article is in Greek. In this paper I will examine the “adventures” on narrative structure of Stelios Xefloudas. Stelios Xefloudas, a Greek writer of the Generation of the thirties was educated in both Greece and France and was an advocate of interior monologue and innovative novel in his country. During the thirties he wrote four innovative novels: Τα Τετράδια του Παύλου Φωτεινού (1930), Εσωτερική Συμφωνία (1932), Εύα (1934) and Στο Φως του Λευκού Αγγέλου (1936). These four novels are written with the technique of interior monologue and they explore themes such as the recording of the unconscious process, the dreamy state of self and escapism. Through these novels we’ll examine Xefloudas’ capacity in “constructing” female characters. For the writer it seems that character “construction” is a long and hard process regulated by his views on fiction as well as his personal limitations or impediments on narrative structure.
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      Πεντζίκης: Αγκαζέ
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Tsianikas, Michael
      Please note: This article is in Greek. In this paper which is a chapter of a forthcoming book publication on the literary work of N. G. Pentzikis, I examine the notion of “engagement”. I begin with a text published in the journal Paramilito in which we are informed that in 1941 the close circle of Pentzikis’ friends were very upset because when walking through the city of Thessaloniki the author wanted to walk linked together arm to arm. They expressed their objection but Pentzikis insisted this attitude has nothing to do with an accepted or unaccepted social practice but was a profound engagement to become united (omoousios) with the other persons. The author’s attitude of course is identical towards not only the physical presence of others, but also to the function of language, narrative structures, aesthetical approach, social ideologies, myths and religion. To put it in other words, Pentzikis abandons himself in the “hands” of things, events and situations that occur. On the creative level someone can test this engagement in every single page of his writings but in this paper I examine the above through some concrete themes e.g. “icon”, “surface”, “scheme” “hero” and so on. Another important question that arises here is the issue of continuity/discontinuity in the narrative construction of writing text. Pentzikis always tries to address this issue by engaging himself in an unstoppable multitude of narrations, from where the most foreign and distant elements are fusing together. At the end of the paper I refer to a discursive engagement between Pentzikis and George Seferis from where someone can understand that their fundamental differences produce two completely opposite aesthetic directions. We now know that for a variety of reasons over the last fifty years George Seferis’ vision of dis-engagement has dominated the Greek intellectual life.
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      Το απομακρυσμένο “Σήμερα” στην πεζογραφία της περιόδου 1960–1975
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Spilias, Thanasis
      Please note: This article is in Greek. With regard to thematic approaches, what concerns writers of the period 1960-1975 and what motivates them most is mainly the present. The past appears to occupy them very little. And when it does, it is, in essence, a “distant present”. I support this claim by specific reference to, and analyses of R. Roufos’s novel Οι Γραικύλοι and M. Koumandareas’s short story Τα Μηχανάκια. I contend that though both of these writers talk about the past, what they want to project is their contemporary historic reality.
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      Η έννοια του Άλλου στο έργο της Μιμίκας Κρανάκη Φιλέλληνες: 24 γράμματα μιας Οδύσσειας
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Nazou, Panayiota
      Please note: This article is in Greek. In this paper we analyse the notion of the Other and Otherness within networks of power relations, as depicted in Mimika Kranaki’s novel "Philhellenes: 24 letters of an Odyssey". We focus on the representational strategies of conscious and unconscious conflicts, as manifested in situations of cultural overlapping and existential osmosis. In a revealing manner, Kranaki’s novel illustrates the ambivalent relations between the Same and the Other and, simultaneously, their very complementarity. Beyond its painful process, according to Kranaki, the encounter with the Other is an ascesis of Self-transcendence, and expansion of the borders of the essential human being. Ultimately the encounter with the Other not only expands the limits of the Self but also establishes its specific topos in history.
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      Ο “χώρος” στα μυθιστορήματα του Γ. Θεοτοκά
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Moustakatou, Katerina
      Please note: This article is in Greek. This article examines the notion of “place” in George Theotokas’ novels, a Greek writer and essayist. To be more specific spatial elements control functions in the novel because certain actions occur in certain places. The “place” illustrates the plot of the novels and contributes to the evolution of the characters, in other words as Genette wrote: the place speaks! The place internal or external, urban or rural, constructed or natural influences the behavior of heroes and determine their actions by giving its own symbolisms. My point of view and my remarks concern Theotokas’ novels — Argo (1936), Daimonio (1938), Leonis (1940), Astheneis kai Odoiporoi (1964) and Kampanes (1970) — in the way the use of many important landscapes and cities affect the way of thinking and acting of the characters and give us some important conclusions based on this textual material.
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      Γυναίκα, ανάγνωση και μυθιστόρημα. Αναγνώστριες και αναγνώσεις του έργου της Γ. Σάνδη στην Ελλάδα του XIX αιώνα
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Lalagianni, Vasiliki
      Please note: This article is in Greek. The different image that the woman of letters has at times held in society can also be detected in the literary works of every age, where the educated heroine — a reader of literary works, particularly fiction — is sometimes reviled, frowned upon and presented with an ironic disposition, and at other times — more rarely and mainly in works with an educational dimension — is presented in a positive light, with the aim of being presented as an example. From the 17th to the 19th century, woman writers (Mlle Lheritier, Mme d’Aulnoy, Mlle de Scudery, Mme de Genlis, Germaine de Staël, etc) attempted to replace the negative image of lettered women through their works. Women authors, whilst escaping the role that society has confined them to, have to face a two-fold problem: to confirm their right to write, and to persuade their detractors that they can write without sacrificing any of their femininity. The work of George Sand expresses the desire for a change in mentality as deserved by women readers and creators. The engagement of Sand’s work in Greece reveals several negative aspects: on one hand, the discussion frequently focuses on the gender identity of her writing since critical and ideological thought attribute a degrading position to women writers in the world of literature. On the other hand, it appears that the work of Sand is not excluded from the climate of the age which considers the consequences of reading fiction to be morally and ethnically harmful.
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      Το αποικιοκρατικό παρελθόν στο μεταποικιοκρατικό παρόν στο μυθιστόρημα του Nίκου Ορφανίδη Ο Άγγελος έφυγε ευτυχισμένος
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Herodotou, Maria
      Please note: This article is in Greek. This paper is part of an extensive research project, which examines the Greek novels of Cyprus within the framework of postcolonial theory, in an attempt to add another paradigm to the universal body of postcolonial literature. It begins with a general introduction to postcolonial theory and critique and it then focuses on Frederic Jameson’s thesis that all literatures produced by ex-colonized countries are concerned with their nation’s situation in the decades that followed anti-colonial struggles and de-colonization and thus could be considered as “national allegories”. The main part of the paper analyses N. Orfanides’s novel, "Angelos Departed Happy", in order to establish the extent to which Jameson’s thesis applies to this novel. More specifically, it examines how the writer uses local history, symbolism and inertextuality in order to give a voice to a “subaltern” nation, to project national identity and to undermine the colonial perception of cultural superiority and local cultural inferiority. The conclusion drawn is that, indeed, Orfanides’s novel could be read as “a national allegory of the embattled situation” of the Greek nation.
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      O Άγγελος Σικελιανός και το Pομαντικό πρίσμα αντίληψής του για τον Yπερρεαλισμό
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Angelatos, Dimitris
      Please note: This article is in Greek. The main focus of this paper is the exploration of Angelos Sikelianos’ involvement with Surrealism. Sikelianos’ profound familiarization with the theoretical framework of that movement on one hand and his perception of the artistic achievements of Surrealism on the other hand underline Sikelianos’ position between German Romanticism and the Freudian psychoanalysis. The overarching framework of Sikelianos’ approach constitutes his particular conception of Surrealism which is Romanticism.
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      Γυναίκες απόφοιτες θετικών επιστημών στην Ελλάδα και η περίπτωση των εκπαιδευτικών
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Frantzi, Kyriaki
      Please note: This article is in Greek. This paper examines the ways in which factors such as gender and class co-exist and interact in the history of both twentieth century Greek education and employment. It begins with the historical data regarding women’s participation in Science, the unilateral theoretical orientation of the Greek educational institutions, the quantitative data and the personal evidence. The paper focuses on the main conclusions of a research referring to women Science graduates who worked as teachers in the Greek secondary education during the pre- and the post-war periods.
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      Διαπιστωτικά γλωσσικά τεστ στην Ελληνική και διδακτικό υλικό για την αντιμετώπιση προβλημάτων σε γραφή και ορθογραφία: Η περίπτωση της Βικτώριας Αυστραλίας
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Tripolitakis, Konstantinos
      Please note: This article is in Greek. The purpose of this presentation is to present a framework of language placement tests of Greek language proficiency and to demonstrate a framework of material to manage problems in Greek writing and spelling. The framework of language placement tests and the framework of material have been designed to be used by primary students who are learning Greek as a second language in Victoria Australia. In the introduction, the theoretical framework of the two parts of the presentation is presented. Then it presents a framework of language placement tests (copy, dictation, spontaneous writing) and reading–comprehension tests. For each test the features, the aim, the application and the way of the outcomes’ record are described in detail. In the second part of this presentation the framework of material to manage problems in writing and spelling are presented.
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      Τυπολογία ιστοριογραφίας της ελληνικής εποίκησης (Ωκεανία και Νότια Αμερική)
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Tamis, Anastasios M
      Please note: This article is in Greek. Although Australia and South America are both sharing the same ocean, very little is known about the common socio-cultural characteristics defining the Greek immigration and settlement in both regions. In South America the phenomenon of migration was developed during the inter-war period (1920–1939) as a result of the migration restrictions and quotas on South European migration intakes applied by the US government. With the exception of Brazil, strong Greek migration waves appeared as early as 1880 in Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Peru, establishing large and robust Greek community organizations. The Hispanic cultures influenced adversely the loyalty efforts of the Greek communities to maintain their ethnolinguistic identities, despite the large number of Greek benefactors and the adequacy of their social and economic consolidation. The Greek migration to Australia was mainly a post-WWII phenomenon, was developed on the basis of government-controlled migration, focusing on labour decentralization and demographic benefits. In contrast to the migration experience in South America, successive Australian Governments established national policies on languages and supported the ethnolinguistic and cultural loyalty efforts of the 490,000 Australians of Greek ancestry.
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      Με αφορμή μια ανέκδοτη επιστολή του Γ. Κ. Κατσίμπαλη προς το Γ. Ζερβό: Παλαμάς versus Σολωμός
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Frazis, George
      Please note: This article is in Greek. From the personal archives of the Kalymnian writer Yiannis Zervos, we present an unpublished letter dated 1929 of the well-known critic Katsibalis. In this letter Katsibalis criticizes the work of Solomos, the poems of Zervos and other well known critics of the 20th Century. In this paper we analyse Katsibalis’ letter with respect to the critique of the poet Yiannis Zervos. It was evident in the letter that Katsibalis believed that Zervos possessed the literary potential to revolutionarise Greek poetry. Katsibalis attempts to persuade Zervos to follow in the steps of Palamas and not Solomos. We place this preference within the aesthetic, artistic and literary canon of “alithophaneia” which although had its genesis between 1850 and 1880 still continued to infl uence the Greek critics of the first half of the 20th Century. The correspondence of the above mentioned writers ceased suddenly in 1932, two years after the publication of Serefi s’ “Strofi ” where Katsibalis realised that the revoluntionary change to Greek literature was brought about by the collection of poems in Seferis’ work entitled “Strofi ”.
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      'H Ποιητική τῆς Βαθειᾶς Εἰκόνας καί ἡ Γλώσσα τῆς Κένωσης στό ἐργο τοῦ Ἄθου Δημουλᾶ
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Karalis, Vrasidas
      Please note: This article is in Greek. This paper deals with the rather neglected poetry of Athos Dimoulas (1921-1985) and addresses two central dimensions of its poetics. First the invention of the “deep image” in order to depict the open nature of representational language and its culmination in the gradual self-signification of poetic text. Second, the existential reality of kenosis as poetic material and the way such complete and utter self-emptiness was expressed in the last phase of his artistic development. Dimoulas is one of the most important post-war poets of contemporary Greece who struggled with the idioms of the great predecessors of high modernism; namely C. P. Cavafy and Giorgos Seferis. Against their presence and under the “anxiety of influence”, Dimoulas and his generation tried to undermine the representational codes and the formal devices employed by high modernism in order to give mythopoetic coherence to the vicissitudes of history. Thus his poetry is crystallised around images in the making, fluid depictions of evanescent feelings which are articulated through a macroscopic self-presentation of their own creation and referential indexicality. By doing so, Dimoulas emptied his language from any kind of emotion, creating an idiom of absence and silence, based on geometric abstraction and almost Euclidian linearity. His poetry became the liminal form of expression in Greek beyond which language nullifi es itself as both form and articulation. This papers attempts to explaining such “negativity” as a structural principle of his poetry and contextualises its function within post-war poetics in Greece.
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      Η Νέα Εστία του Γρ. Ξενόπουλου και τα Ιταλικά Γράμματα
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Vafiadou Pashalinou, Sofia
      Please note: This article is in Greek. This article presents a representative portion of my doctoral thesis concerning Italian literature in the Athenian periodical Nea Estia from 1927 to the end of the 20th century. More than 500 Italian texts described and analyzed, are invaluable in terms of structure and presentation of the periodical itself, and for the greater aesthetic of Hellenic periodical literature, as well as for Hellenic comparative literature in general. The inclusion of Italian letters in Nea Estia in the specific period supplies much of the spirit of the Italian Renaissance — which has continued to influence Italian thought and letters even up to the present time — and which dynamically enriches the often prescriptive forms of Hellenic cultural production. As Greek scholars argue, Italian letters are the most closely aligned to the Hellenic. Rather than separating the two cultures, the historical and political conflicts between Italy and Greece operate in combination towards an unending reciprocation of ideas and ideals from ancient to modern times.
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      Ο Ελληνοαυστραλιανός Τύπος στη δεκαετία του 1950
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Fifis, Christos N
      Please note: This article is in Greek. The present article attempts a study of the Greek Australian Press of the 1950s. The 1950s, with the commencement of the mass Greek emigration to Australia, form an important turning point in the development of the Greek-Australian Community. The change of the Law regarding the publication of foreign language newspapers in Australia, in 1956, made also easier the publication of new newspapers and facilitated the development of the Greek-Australian Press and its possibilities to respond to the great social needs of the tens of thousands of new immigrants.
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      Τα Απογευματινά Σχολεία της Αυστραλίας και η χάραξη μιας Εθνικής Εκπαιδευτικής Πολιτικής στον 21o αιώνα
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Arvanitis, Eugenia
      Please note: This article is in Greek. The present article examines the role of the afternoon schools in the Australian educational system and its implication in developing an inclusive national educational policy. Language policy and program development is regarded as one of the most salient features of a modern post-industrial and highly liberal society and its concomitant plurality (Banks, 1994). Australian public discourse on immigration has reflected a wide and changing spectrum of attitudes from hostility and assimilationist practices to acceptance and encouragement of language and cultural maintenance. Similarly, the presence of multilingualism in Australia has triggered a direct and conscious political response in areas such as education, and has taken on diff erent ideological complexions over time. Languages were seen as the clearest and most evident component of cultural diversity (Ozolins, 1993). The function and development of the afternoon schools, and in particular the Greek ethnic school system, was a process which combined broader socio-political and educational considerations. Ethnic schools are educational institutions that fall into the sphere of Australian language policies constituting one key “topos” (or milieu) where both the aspirations of ethnic communities for language maintenance and official policy and practice responses to Australian inter-ethnic relations intersected. The article examines the Australian responses towards Afternoon schools and attempts to highlight some major components in developing a national agenda for these institutions.
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      Παθήσεις ημιφώνων στο ιδίωμα των Κουβουκλίων Προύσας και σε άλλες διαλέκτους και γλώσσες
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Deliyannis, Kyriakos
      Please note: This article is in Greek. Changes of consonants and vowels can be observed not only in the idiom of Kouvouklia and other Greek idioms and dialects, but in other languages as well. According to G. Hatzidakis changes in some cases of the article (o,η) and of the third person of the personal pronoun (αυτός), are attributed to the contraction of the unaccented vowels, after which they become ts. After the final phthong -s, the sound of a weak phthong i is heard and they become tsi. In Turkish an i is developed before consonantal complexes, of which the first component is s or z, the same is noticed in other languages as well.The vocalization of some consonants is very noticeable in the English phthongs l, r, w and j. These consonants have some vocalic qualitites, because of which they are called semiconsonants and semivowels. The American linguist Kenneth Pike proposed the terms vocoid (φωνηεντοειδή) and contoid (συμφωνοειδή). In Antiquity the consonant s, and the semivowels j and F in Greek at the beggining of the word turned into a guttural consonant, while in between vowels they disappear. In the Latin the phthong s turned into r, and the semivowel F became v. The voiceless phthong s when is next to liquid and voiced phthongs l and r becomes voiced and it is pronounced as z. In the Indoeuropean languages, frequently, a vowel is developed next to a liquid consonant, turning it into a syllable, e.g. the consonants l and r become la and ra or al and ar. This phenomenon is due to a certain degree of vocalisation existing in the consonants l and r. The nasals (μ,ν), too, are vocalised: τέμν-ω-έ-ταμ-ον, the *μ-χρι -μέχρι elsewhere became ά-χρι, στμ-φυλή, σταφυλή (πβ. στέμ-φυλον). Also in the idiom of Kouvouklia the nasal n becomes palatal like the l, due to its vicinity with the i. Other changes of vowels are the ektenia (extensiveness), the heteriosis (alteration) and the systole (contraction).
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      The Anglo-Australian Sweet Company: A Sweet Cypriot-Australian Success Story
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Ganzis, Nicholas
      The society from which Greek and Cypriot migrants came to Australia was not as homogeneous as might appear from a superficial consideration of their common heritage of faith, language and culture, and the multifaceted nature of Greek society was to manifest itself in Australia when conditions here enabled these differences to surface. Many pre-World War II migrants became involved in business activities, some of which developed into substantial commercial and industrial concerns. Communities were formed around these successful families, strengthened by regional organisations and the Greek Orthodox Community. One such family was the Loizou-Petrou family: George Loizou (later Lewis), who arrived in Adelaide in 1927, founded his own chocolate manufacturing and retailing company, which was to become the Anglo-Australian Sweet Company. He was joined by his nephew Harry Petrou (later Peters) in 1936, then by other members of their immediate family in 1948. The present paper studies the part played in South Australian business and social life by this extended Cypriot family in the context of Greek community formation, maintenance and fragmentation.
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      On the Methodology of Greek-Australian Historiography
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Nicolacopoulos, Toula; Vassilacopoulos, George
      This paper addresses some of the methodological issues that are raised by efforts to write the history of the Greek-Australian communities. In general Australian historiography tends to undervalue the national significance of Greek-Australian history. We attempt firstly to outline the conditions under which we might begin to redress this weakness. To this end we identify the role that the communities play in the development of white Australian national identity throughout the twentieth century by arguing that white Australia has assigned to the migrant communities the social position of what we call the “perpetual foreigner-within”. We then proceed to sketch some of the main features of two patterns of response to this assignment that have developed within the Greek-Australian communities of the twentieth century.
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      Museums, World Heritage, and Interpretation -- the Case of the Parthenon Marbles
      (Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek, 2005) Simpson, Moira
      The status of the Parthenon Marbles as objects of world heritage lies at the heart of arguments for their retention in the British Museum as part of one of the most significant universal museum collections in the world. This paper challenges the logic of this argument. After a brief description of the circumstances that enabled western museums to acquire their collections and led to the development of the “universal museum”, I will outline the efforts that have been made at national and international levels to protect cultural property, efforts which have curtailed the ability of museums to accumulate materials on the scale of previous periods in their history. I then discuss the reasons why, despite this, international cultural property protection measures do not resolve many of the debates surrounding ownership and repatriation of items in existing museum collections. I will then use the case of the Greek claim for the return to Athens of the Elgin collection of Parthenon Marbles, currently held in the British Museum, to examine the issues relating to the nature of universal museums and international responsibilities for the preservation and effective interpretation of items of world heritage value.