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    Fresh living Arthrospira as dietary supplements: Current status and challenges
    (Elsevier, 2019-04-21) Ma, Zengling; Ahmed, Faruq; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Wei
    Background Arthrospira (Spirulina) spp. has long been consumed as a dietary supplement that provides rich natural nutrients consisting of 60–70% proteins including essential amino acids, vitamins, and some minerals. The currently available Spirulina products in the market are mainly hot and spray-dried and their nutritional values are significantly compromised due to degradation of the heat-sensitive bioactive components. Scope and approach This commentary provides a critical view on the differences in main nutritional composition between dried and fresh living Arthrospira. In addition, the current R&D advances in the development of fresh living Arthrospira as a dietary supplement including the cultivation system, preservation and storage, product development, nutritional and functional properties and food safety were critically discussed. Key findings and conclusions Fresh living Arthrospira can better maintain their nutritional, functional, and health values, and therefore could be developed for a new range of Arthrospira derived products. However, the cultivation system that could ensure the food safety and long-term storage technologies to preserve the cell viability in different product formulations are still under development for expanding the commercial applications.
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    A novel training-free method for real-time prediction of femoral strain
    (Elsevier, 2019-02-12) Ziaeipoor, Hamed; Taylor, Mark; Pandy, Marcus G; Martelli, Saulo
    Surrogate methods for rapid calculation of femoral strain are limited by the scope of the training data. We compared a newly developed training-free method based on the superposition principle (Superposition Principle Method, SPM) and popular surrogate methods for calculating femoral strain during activity. Finite-element calculations of femoral strain, muscle, and joint forces for five different activity types were obtained previously. Multi-linear regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, and Gaussian process were trained for 50, 100, 200, and 300 random samples generated using Latin Hypercube (LH) and Design of Experiment (DOE) sampling. The SPM method used weighted linear combinations of 173 activity-independent finite-element analyses accounting for each muscle and hip contact force. Across the surrogate methods, we found that 200 DOE samples consistently provided low error (RMSE < 100 µε), with model construction time ranging from 3.8 to 63.3 h and prediction time ranging from 6 to 1236 s per activity. The SPM method provided the lowest error (RMSE = 40 µε), the fastest model construction time (3.2 h) and the second fastest prediction time per activity (36 s) after Multi-linear Regression (6 s). The SPM method will enable large numerical studies of femoral strain and will narrow the gap between bone strain prediction and real-time clinical applications.
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    α-lipoic acid regulate growth, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis: Optimum supplement level and metabonomics response
    (Elsevier, 2019-03-16) Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Han, Fenglu; Qi, Changle; Li, Erchao; Guo, Jianlin; Qin, Jianguang; Chen, Li Qiao
    The α-lipoic acid (α-LA) is a novel feed additive to improve growth, antioxidant capacity and lipid metabolism in animal husbandry. In this study, isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated at seven levels of α-LA (0, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, or 9600 mg/kg) and fed to the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis juveniles for eight weeks. According to weight gain and specific grwoth rate, the optimal level of α-LA supplement in the diet is estimated at 1339–1574 mg/kg for E. sinensis. The α-LA supplement significantly increased the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and T-AOC, and the content of GSH in the hepatopancreas except for SOD in the crabs fed 9600 mg/kg α-LA. Excess dietary α-LA supplement increased the content of MDA in the hepatopancreas. The E. sinensis fed 2400 mg/kg α-LA in the diet showed the highest mRNA expressions of es_TGL1, es_TGL2, es_IL and es_DGL and had higher lipid catabolism when taking 300 mg/kg α-LA than other diets, which coincides with higher mRNA expressions of es_IL, es_DGL and CPT-1 in the hepatopancreas. The crab fed 2400 mg/kg α-LA significantly modified 45 metabolites in serum compared with the control. The supplmentation of α-LA significantly influenced fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carnitine metabolism and accumulation of plant antioxidants. This study indicates that α-LA is a promising feed additive to regulate growth, antioxidant status and lipid metabolism in E. sinensis, but its inclusion in the diet should be <2400 mg/kg α-LA to maximize the benefitial effect and minimize side effects.
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    Inter-sample contamination detection using mixture deconvolution comparison
    (Elsevier, 2019-02-26) Taylor, Duncan A; Rowe, Emily; Kruijver, Maarten; Abarno, Damien; Bright, Jo-Anne; Buckleton, John S
    A recent publication has provided the ability to compare two mixed DNA profiles and consider their probability of occurrence if they do, compared to if they do not, have a common contributor. This ability has applications to both quality assurance (to test for sample to sample contamination) and for intelligence gathering purposes (did the same unknown offender donate DNA to multiple samples). We use a mixture to mixture comparison tool to investigate the prevalence of sample to sample contamination that could occur from two laboratory mechanisms, one during DNA extraction and one during electrophoresis. By carrying out pairwise comparisons of all samples (deconvoluted using probabilistic genotyping software STRmix™) within extraction or run batches we identify any potential common DNA donors and investigate these with respect to their risk of contamination from the two proposed mechanisms. While not identifying any contamination, we inadvertently find a potential intelligence link between samples, showing the use of a mixture to mixture comparison tool for investigative purposes.
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    A fully continuous system of DNA profile evidence evaluation that can utilise STR profile data produced under different conditions within a single analysis
    (Elsevier, 2017-09-08) Taylor, Duncan A; Bright, Jo-Anne; Kelly, Hannah; Lin, Meng-Han; Buckleton, John S
    The introduction of probabilistic DNA interpretation systems has made it possible to evaluate many profiles that previously (under a manual interpretation system) were not. These probabilistic systems have been around for a number of years and it is becoming more common that their use within a laboratory has spanned at least one technology change. This may be a change in laboratory hardware, the DNA profiling kit used, or the manner in which the profile is generated. Up until this point, when replicates DNA profiles are generated, that span a technological change, the ability to utilise all the information in all replicates has been limited or non-existent. In this work we explain and derive the models required to evaluate (what we term) multi-kit analysis problems. We demonstrate the use of the multi-kit feature on a number of scenarios where such an analysis would be desired within a laboratory. Allowing the combination of profiling data that spans a technological change will further increase the amount of DNA profile information produced in a laboratory that can be evaluated.
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    Methods for analysis of glass in glass-containing gunshot residue (gGSR) particles
    (Elsevier, 2019-03-16) Seyfang, Kelsey E; Lucas, Nick; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel Sarah; Kobus, Hilton John; Redman, Kahlee E; Kirkbride, Kenneth Paul
    When lead, barium and antimony, or lead, barium, calcium, silicon and tin are found together in particles associated with a shooting investigation they are considered characteristic of gunshot residue (GSR). Antimony and tin are often absent from the primer of many low calibre rimfire ammunitions, which are the type most commonly used in Australia. Therefore, the likelihood of characteristic particles forming during the firing process of such rimfire ammunition is significantly less than the likelihood of these particles arising from higher calibre ammunition. The majority of rimfire ammunition examined in this research contains ground glass in the primer, which functions as a frictionator. These ammunitions produce a small number of gunshot residue particles containing glass coated with other primer components, which we refer to as glass-containing GSR (gGSR). If these particles are observed in an investigation, they have the potential to add a new dimension to gunshot residue analysis because they are not common in the environment. Furthermore, the composition of glass frictionator is stable during firing, which raises the possibility that chemical testing of the glass in gGSR may be used to identify the ammunition from which the residue was derived or to link deposits of GSR. This paper examines the application of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), focussed ion beam (FIB) techniques and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to the semi-quantitative analysis and comparisons of gGSR and frictionator extracted from unfired cartridges. SEM-EDS is effective for comparing gGSR with unfired frictionator, but the use of FIB to expose clean glass from the centre of gGSR followed by ToF-SIMS, or ToF-SIMS using ion sputtering to expose clean glass, offers more power for comparisons due to their capability for higher discrimination between frictionators from different sources.
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    The impact of foliar applied zinc fertilizer on zinc and phytate accumulation in dorsal and ventral grain sections of four thai rice varieties with different grain zinc
    (Elsevier, 2017-09-15) Jaksomsak, Pennapa; Tuiwong, Patcharin; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Guild, Georgia Ellen; Palmer, Lachlan James; Stangoulis, James Constantine Roy; Prom-u-thai, Chanakan T
    This study investigated the effect of foliar applied zinc (Zn) on the distribution of Zn and phytate in rice grain between four Thai rice varieties that differ in grain Zn. Foliar Zn application at 0.5% ZnSO4 was applied at flowering and the early milky stage compared with non-foliar applied Zn. Among the high-yielding, low grain Zn varieties (CNT1 and RD21), foliar applied Zn increased Zn concentration in both dorsal and ventral sections of unpolished rice by up to 17.7 and 14.3%. In the low-yielding, high grain Zn varieties (KPK and NR), Zn concentration increased by 11% in the dorsal section of NR, but no effect was found in both sections of KPK. In polished rice, the Zn concentration increased by 20% in both sections but it was increased only in the ventral section of KPK and CNT1 by 21.0% and 25.0% respectively, while there was an increase of 12.5% in the dorsal section of RD21. The phytate in the seed fractions was measured as an indication for Zn bioavailability within humans. A lower phytate concentration was observed after foliar Zn application in both unpolished and polished rice, indicating the potential for a higher bioavailability of Zn in the rice grain.
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    Analysis of the South Australian Aboriginal population using the Global AIMs Nano ancestry test
    (Elsevier, 2019-03-23) Hopkins, Catherine; Taylor, Duncan A; Hill, Kelly; Henry, Julianne
    We investigate the ability of the 31 SNP loci in the Global AIMs Nano set to distinguish self-declared Australian Aboriginal individuals from European, Oceanic, African, Native American and East Asian populations. Human evolution suggests that Australian Aboriginal individuals came to Australia approximately 50 000 years ago, during the time it made up part of Sahul. Since then the colonisation of Australia by Europeans has meant significant admixture within the Australian Aboriginal population. These two events present themselves in our study with the Aboriginal population creating a continuous genetic cline between the Oceanic and European groups. We also assigned the Aboriginal individuals into their traditional regional groups to determine whether there was any ability to distinguish these from each other. We found similar results to studies using other markers, namely that the more remote regions (that have been less affected by admixture) diverged from the rest. Overall, we found the ability of the GNano system to differentiate self-declared Australian Aboriginal individuals was reasonable but had limitations that need to be recognised if these assignments are applied to unknown individuals.
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    Creating the first national linked dataset on perinatal and maternal outcomes in Australia: Methods and challenges
    (Elsevier, 2019-03-16) Cheah, Seong L; Scarf, Vanessa L; Rossiter, Chris; Thornton, Charlene Eliza; Homer, Caroline S E
    Background Data linkage offers a powerful mechanism for examining healthcare outcomes across populations and can generate substantial robust datasets using routinely collected electronic data. However, it presents methodological challenges, especially in Australia where eight separate states and territories maintain health datasets. This study used linked data to investigate perinatal and maternal outcomes in relation to place of birth. It examined data from all eight jurisdictions regarding births planned in hospitals, birth centres and at home. Data linkage enabled the first Australia-wide dataset on birth outcomes. However, jurisdictional differences in data collection created challenges in obtaining comparable cohorts of women with similar low-risk pregnancies in all birth settings. The objective of this paper is to describe the techniques for managing previously linked data, and specifically for ensuring the resulting dataset contained only low-risk pregnancies. Methods This paper indicates the procedures for preparing and merging linked perinatal, inpatient and mortality data from different sources, providing technical guidance to address challenges arising in linked data study designs. Results We combined data from eight jurisdictions linking four collections of administrative healthcare and civil registration data. The merging process ensured that variables were consistent, compatible and relevant to study aims. To generate comparable cohorts for all three birth settings, we developed increasingly complex strategies to ensure that the dataset eliminated women with pregnancies at risk of complications during labour and birth. It was then possible to compare birth outcomes for comparable samples, enabling specific examination of the impact of birth setting on maternal and infant safety across Australia. Conclusions Data linkage is a valuable resource to enhance knowledge about birth outcomes from different settings, notwithstanding methodological challenges. Researchers can develop and share practical techniques to address these challenges. Study findings suggest that jurisdictions develop more consistent data collections to facilitate future data linkage.
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    Sudden natural death behind the wheel: Review of driver deaths and fitness to drive assessment history in Victoria, Australia 2012–2013
    (Elsevier, 2019-02-20) Brodie, Lisa Ruth; Odell, Morris; Ranson, David L; Young, Carmel; Kitching, Fiona; Ibrahim, Joseph E
    This study reviews the circumstances and medical causes of death of motor vehicle drivers who died in circumstances of sudden illness whilst behind the wheel in Victoria, Australia 2012-13. The driver's fitness to drive assessment history was also examined to identify prevention opportunities. Deaths included in the study were those referred to a panel responsible for determining whether the driver fatality should be included in the official road toll, where prior doubt exists. A research team comprising of forensic physicians examined the case file of each death involving sudden illness. Forty-five driver deaths during the two-year period were reviewed. Ischaemic heart disease was the most common cause of death. Over 80% of drivers were male with a median age of 64 years. While limited medical history was available, significantly impacting study analysis, findings identified minimal opportunity to improve the fitness to drive review process.
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    The efficacy of DNA mixture to mixture matching
    (Elsevier, 2019-03-30) Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan A; Kerr, Zane; Buckleton, John; Kruijver, Maarten
    Standard practice in forensic science is to compare a person of interest’s (POI) reference DNA profile with an evidence DNA profile and calculate a likelihood ratio that considers propositions including and excluding the POI as a DNA donor. A method has recently been published that provides the ability to compare two evidence profiles (of any number of contributors and of any level of resolution) comparing propositions that consider the profiles either have a common contributor, or do not have any common contributors. Using this method, forensic analysts can provide intelligence to law enforcement by linking crime scenes when no suspects may be available. The method could also be used as a quality assurance measure to identify potential sample to sample contamination. In this work we analyse a number of constructed mixtures, ranging from two to five contributors, and with known numbers of common contributors, in order to investigate the performance of using likelihood ratios for mixture to mixture comparisons. Our findings demonstrate the ability to identify common donors in DNA mixtures with the power of discrimination depending largely on the least informative mixture of the pair being considered. The ability to match mixtures to mixtures may provide intelligence information to investigators by identifying possible links between cases which otherwise may not have been considered connected.
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    Field assessment of microbial inoculants to control Rhizoctonia root rot on wheat
    (Elsevier, 2019-02-26) Barnett, Stephen; Ballard, Ross Andrew; Franco, Christopher Milton
    Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG8 is a major disease in dryland cereal crops. Previous research identified a suite of microbes using in planta bioassay screening that are effective as seed-coated inoculants for control of Rhizoctonia root rot on wheat. This paper assessed 23 strains in fields in Australia with a history of naturally occurring R. solani AG8. Due to the patchy nature of Rhizoctonia root rot in the field, a 2-phase split-plot field trial system was used to allow comparison for disease control efficacy in the same disease space. Seed applied strains were first assessed for their ability to reduce Rhizoctonia using ‘microplots’ which compare adjacent treated and untreated one metre rows. Up to 10% increases in plant growth and a 32% reduction in root disease was measured at eight weeks after sowing. Selected strains were then assessed in 20 m six row (3 + 3) split plots for their effects on early season wheat growth and root damage and for grain yield. A Paenibacillus and a Streptomyces strain were identified which were able to reduce root damage by 20% and 32% and increase grain yield by 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively, compared to untreated controls. The current best registered chemical control for Rhizoctonia root rot reduced root disease by 35% and increased yield by 3.0% in the same trial.
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    Cryptic lineage differentiation among Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in the northwest Indian Ocean
    (Elsevier, 2017-12-30) Gray, Howard W I; Nishida, Shin; Welch, Andreanna J; Moura, Andre E; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kiani, Muhammad Shoaib; Culloch, Ross M; Moller, Luciana Marta; Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini; Minton, Gianna; Gore, Mauvis A; Collins, Tim; Willson, Andrew; Baldwin, Robert M; Hoelzel, Alan Rus
    Phylogeography can provide insight into the potential for speciation and identify geographic regions and evolutionary processes associated with species richness and evolutionary endemism. In the marine environment, highly mobile species sometimes show structured patterns of diversity, but the processes isolating populations and promoting differentiation are often unclear. The Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) are a striking case in point and, in particular, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.). Understanding the radiation of species in this genus is likely to provide broader inference about the processes that determine patterns of biogeography and speciation, because both fine-scale structure over a range of kilometers and relative panmixia over an oceanic range are known for Tursiops populations. In our study, novel Tursiops spp. sequences from the northwest Indian Ocean (including mitogenomes and two nuDNA loci) are included in a worldwide Tursiops spp. phylogeographic analysis. We discover a new ‘aduncus’ type lineage in the Arabian Sea (off India, Pakistan and Oman) that diverged from the Australasian lineage ∼261 Ka. Effective management of coastal dolphins in the region will need to consider this new lineage as an evolutionarily significant unit. We propose that the establishment of this lineage could have been in response to climate change during the Pleistocene and show data supporting hypotheses for multiple divergence events, including vicariance across the Indo-Pacific barrier and in the northwest Indian Ocean. These data provide valuable transferable inference on the potential mechanisms for population and species differentiation across this geographic range.
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    Twenty six new species of Leioproctus (Colletellus): Australian Neopasiphaeinae, all but one with two submarginal cells (Hymenoptera, Colletidae, Leioproctus)
    (Pensoft, 2018-12-31) Leijs, Remko; Dorey, James; Hogendoorn, Katja
    Twenty six new species of Australian Leioproctus (subgenus Colletellus) (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) are described: aberrans Leijs, sp. n., alatus Leijs, sp. n., albipilosus Leijs, sp. n., albiscopis Leijs, sp. n., aliceafontanus Leijs, sp. n., altispinosus Leijs, sp. n., aratus Leijs, sp. n., auricorneus Leijs, sp. n., bidentatus Leijs, sp. n., centralis Leijs, sp. n., ciliatus Leijs, sp. n., claviger Leijs, sp. n., consobrinus Leijs, sp. n., constrictus Leijs, sp. n., laciniosus Leijs, sp. n., longivultu Leijs, sp. n., lucidus Leijs, sp. n., nitidifuscus Leijs, sp. n., pectinatus Leijs, sp. n., pilotapilus Leijs, sp. n., quadripinnatus Leijs, sp. n., rubicundus Leijs, sp. n., rubricinctus Leijs, sp. n., similis Leijs, sp. n., splendens Leijs, sp. n., submetallicus Leijs, sp. n. High resolution images of diagnostic characters for all type specimens are included. Identification keys are provided.
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    Chromosomal instability causes sensitivity to protein folding stress and ATP depletion
    (The Company of Biologists Ltd, 2018-10-16) Khan, Mahwish; Shaukat, Zeeshan; Saint, Robert; Gregory, Stephen L
    Aneuploidy ­– having an unbalanced genome – is poorly tolerated at the cellular and organismal level. It gives rise to proteotoxic stress as well as a stereotypical oxidative shift which makes these cells sensitive to internal and environmental stresses. Using Drosophila as a model, we found that protein folding stress is exacerbated by redox stress that occurs in response to ongoing changes to ploidy (chromosomal instability, CIN). We also found that if de novo nucleotide synthesis is blocked, CIN cells are dependent on a high level of lysosome function to survive. Depletion of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) synthesis enzymes led to DNA damage in CIN cells, which showed elevated activity of the DNA repair enzyme activated poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP). PARP activation causes depletion of its substrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and subsequent loss of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP), and we found that adding ATP or nicotinamide (a precursor in the synthesis of NAD+) could rescue the observed phenotypes. These findings provide ways to interpret, target and exploit aneuploidy, which has the potential to offer tumour-specific therapies.
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    Specific MHC class I supertype associated with parasite infection and color morph in a wild lizard population
    (Wiley, 2018-09-17) Hacking, Jessica; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Godfrey, Stephanie Susan; Gardner, Michael George
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a large gene family that plays a central role in the immune system of all jawed vertebrates. Nonavian reptiles are underrepresented within the MHC literature and little is understood regarding the mechanisms maintaining MHC diversity in this vertebrate group. Here, we examined the relative roles of parasite‐mediated selection and sexual selection in maintaining MHC class I diversity of a color polymorphic lizard. We discovered evidence for parasite‐mediated selection acting via rare‐allele advantage or fluctuating selection as ectoparasite load was significantly lower in the presence of a specific MHC supertype (functional clustering of alleles): supertype four. Based on comparisons between ectoparasite prevalence and load, and assessment of the impact of ectoparasite load on host fitness, we suggest that supertype four confers quantitative resistance to ticks or an intracellular tickborne parasite. We found no evidence for MHC‐associated mating in terms of pair genetic distance, number of alleles, or specific supertypes. An association was uncovered between supertype four and male throat color morph. However, it is unlikely that male throat coloration acts as a signal of MHC genotype to conspecifics because we found no evidence to suggest that male throat coloration predicts male mating status. Overall, our results suggest that parasite‐mediated selection plays a role in maintaining MHC diversity in this population via rare‐allele advantage and/or fluctuating selection. Further work is required to determine whether sexual selection also plays a role in maintaining MHC diversity in agamid lizards.
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    Spatiotemporal use predicts social partitioning of bottlenose dolphins with strong home range overlap
    (Wiley, 2018-12-11) Genoves, Rodrigo Cezar; Fruet, Pedro F; Di Tullio, Juliana C; Moller, Luciana Marta; Secchi, Eduardo R
    Ranging behaviour and temporal patterns of individuals are known to be fundamental sources of variation in social networks. Spatiotemporal dynamics can both provide and inhibit opportunities for individuals to associate, and should therefore be considered in social analysis. This study investigated the social structure of a Lahille's bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus gephyreus) population, which shows different spatiotemporal patterns of use and gregariousness between individuals. For this, we constructed an initial social network using association indices corrected for gregariousness and then uncovered affiliations from this social network using generalized affiliation indices. The association‐based social network strongly supported that this dolphin population consists of four social units highly correlated to spatiotemporal use patterns. Excluding the effects of gregariousness and spatiotemporal patterns, the affiliation‐based social network suggested an additional two social units. Although the affiliation‐based social units shared a large part of their core areas, space and/or time use by individuals of the different units were generally distinct. Four of the units were strongly associated with both estuarine and shallow coastal areas, while the other two units were restricted to shallow coastal waters to the south (SC) and north of the estuary (NC), respectively. Interactions between individuals of different social units also occurred, but dolphins from the NC were relatively more isolated and mainly connected to SC dolphins. From a conservation management perspective, it is recommended that information about the dolphin social units should be incorporated in modeling intrapopulation dynamics and viability, as well as for investigating patterns of gene flow among them.
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    Development of immune functionality in larval and juvenile crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus (Bloch 1790)
    (Elsevier, 2018-03-07) Cui, Ke; Fu, Zhilu; Cheng, Dachuan; Yang, Qibin; Ma, Zhenhua; Qin, Jianguang; Hu, Jing
    Ontogenetic development of the immune system in crimson snapper (Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch 1790) larvae was histologically and enzymatically studied from hatch to 36 days post-hatch (DPH). Primitive hepatopancreas appeared on 2 DPH and renal tubules started hematopoiesis on 4 DPH. The spleen anlage appeared on 6 DPH and the thymus formed on 14 DPH. Total activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ K+-ATPase) gradually increased after hatch, and showed a sharp increase after 29 DPH during the transitional feeding period from Artemia to inert feed. The specific activities of SOD, CAT, and GPX showed a trend of sharp increase and reached the maximum level on 4 DPH when exogenous feeding started, except for Na+ K+-ATPase where the peak occurred on10 DPH. The specific activities of these five enzymes reached the peak during the food transition from rotifers to Artemia, but the total activity of enzymes showed an increasing trend as fish grew. The present study provides new knowledge of the development of functional enzymes relevant to fish larvae immunity, sheds light on the understanding of the change of larval health, and improves hatchery management of crimson snapper.
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    Population Connectivity of the Highly Migratory Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque 1810) and Implications for Management in the Southern Hemisphere
    (Frontiers, 2018-11-20) Corrigan, Shannon; Lowther, Andrew D; Beheregaray, Luciano Bellagamba; Bruce, Barry D; Cliff, Geremy; Duffy, Clinton A; Foulis, Alan; Francis, Malcolm P; Goldsworthy, Simon D; Hyde, John R; Jabado, Rima W; Kacev, Dovi; Marshall, Lindsay; Mucientes, Gonzalo R; Naylor, Gavin J P; Pepperell, Julian G; Queiroz, Nuno; White, William T; Wintner, Sanine P; Rogers, Paul J
    In this paper we combine analyses of satellite telemetry and molecular data to investigate spatial connectivity and genetic structure among populations of shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) in and around Australian waters, where this species is taken in recreational and commercial fisheries. Mitochondrial DNA data suggest matrilineal substructure across hemispheres, while nuclear DNA data indicate shortfin mako may constitute a globally panmictic population. There was generally high genetic connectivity within Australian waters. Assessing genetic connectivity across the Indian Ocean basin, as well as the extent that shortfin mako exhibit sex biases in dispersal patterns would benefit from future improved sampling of adult size classes, particularly of individuals from the eastern Indian Ocean. Telemetry data indicated that Australasian mako are indeed highly migratory and frequently make long-distance movements. However, individuals also exhibit fidelity to relatively small geographic areas for extended periods. Together these patterns suggest that shortfin mako populations may be genetically homogenous across large geographical areas as a consequence of few reproductively active migrants, although spatial partitioning exists. Given that connectivity appears to occur at different scales, management at both the national and regional levels seems most appropriate.
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    Skeletal Ontogeny and Anomalies in Larval and Juvenile Crimson Snapper, Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch, 1790
    (ResearchersLinks, 2018-04-05) Cheng, Dachuan; Hassan, Md Mahbubul; Ma, Zhenhua; Yang, Qibin; Qin, Jianguang
    Skeletal anomalies in farmed fish affect animal welfare and economic return in aquaculture but very limited information exists on skeletal ontogeny and anomalies among species of the family Lutjanidae. This study describes the skeletal ontogeny and anomalies of crimson snapper Lutjanus erythropterus larvae and juveniles from hatching to 36 day-post hatching (DPH). Mandible, ceratobranchial, cleithrum and gill arches were the initial skeletal structures appeared at 3 DPH that supported the vital life functions such as feeding and respiration. Ossification of premaxilla and maxilla and dentary started at 3.21 ± 0.25 mm (9 DPH), and completed at 5.91 ± 0.34 mm (18 DPH). The head skeleton formation completed at 22.35 ± 2.26 mm (31 DPH). The axial skeleton development started with the formation of neural arches at 3.64 ± 0.07 mm (10 DPH) and ossification of axial skeleton completed at 11.01 ± 0.88 mm (24 DPH). The fins developed sequentially and the ossification of fins completed at 30.57 ± 2.44 mm (36 DPH). A total of 39.5% fish exhibited anomalies in the present study and the anomalies were: lordosis, vertebral fusion, neural spines bifurcation, connection of adjacent pterygiophores, haemal spine anomaly, neural spines anomaly, anomaly in pterygiophores and supernumerary neural spines. Results from this study add new knowledge to functional morphology of crimson snapper that would be useful to larval aquaculture of marine teleosts. Read more at