Health Sciences - Collected Works

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    Variables Impacting the Time Taken to Wean Children From Enteral Tube Feeding to Oral Intake
    (Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2019-06-01) Lively, Emily ; McAllister, Sue Margery ; Doeltgen, Sebastian
    Objectives: This study investigated biological factors, which may influence the time taken for children to wean from enteral to oral intake. Methods: Retrospective case-note audit of 62 tube-fed children (nasogastric or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) aged 6 months to 8 years, participating in an intensive tube weaning program. Program design included family-focused mealtimes, child autonomy, and appetite stimulation. A regression model was developed, which shows the combination of variables with the most predictive power for time taken to wean. Results: Data from 62 children who were highly dependent (minimum 93% of calories provided enterally) on tube feeding for an extended period of time (mean = 2.1 years) were analysed. Children's mean body mass index z score at time of weaning was -0.47 (standard deviation 1.03) (mean weight = 10.54 kg) and 54 (87%) presented with a range of medical conditions. Forty-four children (71%) remained completely tube free at 3 months postintervention and an additional 5 children (10%) were fully tube weaned within 10 months of program commencement. Type of feeding tube, medical complexity, age, and length of time tube fed all significantly correlated with time taken to wean. Logistic regression modelling indicated that the type of feeding tube in combination with the degree of medical complexity and time tube fed were the strongest predictors of time taken to wean. Conclusions: Biological factors usually considered to impact on successful weaning from tube feeding (volume of oral intake, oral skill, or mealtime behaviours) were not relevant; however, the type of feeding tube in combination with the degree of medical complexity and time tube fed were the strongest predictors. The impact of psychosocial factors should be investigated to identify if these mitigated the effects of the biological variables.
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    Addressing nutrition and social connection through community gardening: A South Australian study
    (Wiley, 2019-02-11) Mehta, Kaye Phillips ; Lopresti, Silvia ; Thomas, Jessica
    Background This research aimed to evaluate the benefits of the community gardening program called ‘‘Magic Harvest (MH)” with respect to its key elements: social interaction; gardening skills; and, healthier eating. The MH program supports community participants to grow food, share produce, prepare and preserve food. Methods Two focus groups were conducted with participants in MH programs in the south of Adelaide, South Australia. The MH programs were located in lower socio‐economic areas. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically. Results Thirteen participants took part in the focus groups and reported gains in community connectedness and shared learning, skills for growing food and healthy eating and making more sustainable food choices. Conclusion This study highlights the social and nutritional benefits that can be derived from a community gardening program in low‐income communities. Health practitioners and policymakers should consider community gardening as an effective health promotion strategy that can address physical and social determinants of health and nutrition for low‐income communities.
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    Evaluation of the Young Deadly Free Peer Education Training Program: Early Results, Methodological Challenges, and Learnings for Future Evaluations
    (Frontiers, 2019-04-05) D'Costa, Belinda ; Lobo, Roanna ; Thomas, Jessica ; Ward, James Steven
    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience disproportionately higher rates of sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and blood borne viruses (BBVs) when compared with the non-Indigenous population. Both incidence and prevalence data for bacterial STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and syphilis in remote areas of Australia are reported at rates many times higher than that of non-Indigenous Australians. Similarly, rates of hepatitis B are disproportionately higher for non-Indigenous people in remote communities. The Young Deadly STI and BBV Free project was designed to increase the uptake of STI and BBV testing and treatment in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote and very remote areas of South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, and the Northern Territory. Peer education formed one component of this pilot project and involved training up to 100 young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people across 19 communities in a culturally appropriate and respectful manner on the transmission, testing, and treatment of STIs and BBVs. The trained peer educators were then required to deliver three community education sessions to young people in their respective communities in an effort to raise awareness about STIs and BBVs and encourage testing and treatment uptake. Preliminary evaluation findings, limited to the trained peer educators, revealed the peer educator training program contributed to STI and BBV knowledge gains among the trained peer educators and positively influenced their behavioral intentions and attitudes pertaining to STIs and BBVs. Working with remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations on a highly sensitive, stigmatized topic presented many methodological challenges, particularly in terms of ensuring the collection of reliable evaluation data across geographically remote communities. The challenges and strengths associated with the implementation of the peer education training program along with implications for developing culturally inclusive evaluation practices will be discussed.
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    Topic search filters: a systematic scoping review
    (Wiley, 2018-12-21) Damarell, Raechel ; May, Nikki ; Hammond, Sue ; Sladek, Ruth ; Tieman, Jennifer
    Background Searching for topics within large biomedical databases can be challenging, especially when topics are complex, diffuse, emerging or lack definitional clarity. Experimentally derived topic search filters offer a reliable solution to effective retrieval; however, their number and range of subject foci remain unknown. Objectives This systematic scoping review aims to identify and describe available experimentally developed topic search filters. Methods Reports on topic search filter development (1990‐) were sought using grey literature sources and 15 databases. Reports describing the conception and prospective development of a database‐specific topic search and including an objectively measured estimate of its performance (‘sensitivity’) were included. Results Fifty‐four reports met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and thematically synthesised to describe the characteristics of 58 topic search filters. Discussion Topic search filters are proliferating and cover a wide range of subjects. Filter reports, however, often lack clear definitions of concepts and topic scope to guide users. Without standardised terminology, filters are challenging to find. Information specialists may benefit from a centralised topic filter repository and appraisal checklists to facilitate quality assessment. Conclusion Findings will help information specialists identify existing topic search filters and assist filter developers to build on current knowledge in the field.
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    The background and development of quality of life and family quality of life: applying research, policy, and practice to individual and family living
    (University of Victoria Victoria, BC Canada, 2018) Brown, Roy Irwin ; Schippers, Alice
    This article introduces the concepts of quality of life and family quality of life and shows how they have developed in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities in terms of concepts and principles. The article underscores the relevance of many of the principles and practices to a wide range of disabilities and challenges in the broad field of human development. Finally, the article provides an introduction to the other articles in this special issue, and considers their relationship to the broader areas of research, practice, and policy.
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    Family quality of life and the building of social connections: practical suggestions for practice and policy
    (University of Victoria Victoria, BC Canada, 2018) Edwards, Meaghan ; Parmenter, Trevor ; O’Brien, Patricia ; Brown, Roy Irwin
    Family quality of life literature suggests that families with a member with an intellectual/developmental disability frequently face major difficulties in building social connections with others. They experience low levels of social support, face challenges in community inclusion, and are at risk of social isolation. These challenges may also be faced by other types of marginalized families. Families experiencing serious illness, families experiencing intrafamily violence, and migrant families or those seeking political asylum, for example, may also become isolated and find themselves without pathways to connections with others. We present practical suggestions intended for families and professionals interested in action and intervention at the personal, community, program, and policy levels to encourage the growth of social connections and prevent isolation of families experiencing social exclusion. The suggestions will come from families with a member with a disability and the findings of a study examining the social support of families as it relates to quality of life.