ItemKnowledge of Health Professionals on Cold Chain Management and Associated Factors in Ezha District, Gurage Zone, Ethiopia(Hindawi, 2019-06-09) Yassin, Zeyneba Jemal; Nega, Habtamu Yimer; Derseh, Behailu Tariku; Yehuala, Yetnayet Sisay; Dadi, Abel FekaduBackground. Maintaining quality of vaccines has been one of the main challenges of immunization programs in Africa including Ethiopia, and this could mainly be explained by health professional’s knowledge about cold chain management. There are limited studies done in Ethiopia linking the knowledge of health professionals on cold chain management, and that is why we needed to conduct this study. Methodology. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among all available health professionals in selected health facilities (232 health professionals). Face-to-face interview using a semistructured questionnaire was conducted to collect required information from September to October 2016. Observational checklist was used to spot availability and functionality of refrigerators. Data entry and cleaning was done using Epi Info and exported to SPSS for analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with health professional’s knowledge about cold chain management. Result. The response rate was 92.43%, and 119 (51.3%; 95% CI; 44.9%, 57.6%) health professionals had a satisfactory knowledge about cold chain management. Being trained on immunization program (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 2.68, 10.13), having a work experience above six years (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 4.15), using EPI guidelines (AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.47, 5.57), and being a BSc nurse/health officer (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.47, 14.4) had got better knowledge on cold chain management. Conclusion. Health professionals working in the health centers and health posts had low knowledge on cold chain management. Longer work experience, in-service training, and using EPI guideline at work were factors that improved health professionals’ knowledge about a cold chain management, which needs to be maintained. ItemEffect of Chemotherapeutics and Tocopherols on MCF-7 Breast Adenocarcinoma and KGN Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Lines In Vitro(Hindawi, 2019-01-15) Figueroa Gonzalez, Daniela; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Young, Fiona MargaretThe combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide commonly used to treat breast cancer can cause premature ovarian failure and infertility. α-Tocopherol is a potent antioxidant whereas γ-tocopherol causes apoptosis in a variety of cancer models in vitro including breast cancer. We hypothesised that the combination of doxorubicin (Dox) and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-Cyc) would be more cytotoxic in vitro than each agent alone, and that α-tocopherol would reduce and γ-tocopherol would augment the cytotoxicity of the combined chemotherapeutics. Human MCF-7 breast cancer and KGN ovarian cells were exposed to Dox, 4-Cyc, combined Dox and 4-Cyc, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, or a combination of Dox and 4-Cyc with α-tocopherol or γ–tocopherol. Cell viability was assessed using a crystal violet assay according to four schedules: 24h exposure, 24h exposure + 24h culture in medium, 24h exposure + 48h culture in medium, or 72h continuous exposure. Supernatants from each separate KGN culture experiment (n=3) were examined using an estradiol ELISA. Dox was cytotoxic to both MCF-7 and KGN cells, but 4-Cyc only killed MCF-7 cells. γ-Tocopherol significantly decreased MCF-7 but not KGN cell viability. The combined chemotherapeutics and γ-tocopherol were more cytotoxic to MCF-7 than KGN cells, and α-tocopherol reduced the cytotoxicity of the combined chemotherapeutics towards KGN ovarian cells, but not MCF-7 cells. The addition of both γ-tocopherol and α-tocopherol to the chemotherapeutic combination of Dox and cyclophosphamide has the potential to increase in vitro chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer cells whilst decreasing cytotoxicity towards ovarian granulosa cells. ItemGenetic Modification for Wheat Improvement: From Transgenesis to Genome Editing(Hindawi, 2019-03-10) Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kishchenko, Olena; Eliby, Serik; Schramm, Carly; Anderson, Peter Alex; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Kurishbayev, Akhylbek; Shavrukov, YuriTo feed the growing human population, global wheat yields should increase to approximately 5 tonnes per ha from the current 3.3 tonnes by 2050. To reach this goal, existing breeding practices must be complemented with new techniques built upon recent gains from wheat genome sequencing, and the accumulated knowledge of genetic determinants underlying the agricultural traits responsible for crop yield and quality. In this review we primarily focus on the tools and techniques available for accessing gene functions which lead to clear phenotypes in wheat. We provide a view of the development of wheat transformation techniques from a historical perspective, and summarize how techniques have been adapted to obtain gain-of-function phenotypes by gene overexpression, loss-of-function phenotypes by expressing antisense RNAs (RNA interference or RNAi), and most recently the manipulation of gene structure and expression using site-specific nucleases, such as CRISPR/Cas9, for genome editing. The review summarizes recent successes in the application of wheat genetic manipulation to increase yield, improve nutritional and health-promoting qualities in wheat, and enhance the crop’s resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses.