Speech Pathology and Audiology - Collected Works

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    Learning from students: facilitators' learning in interprofessional placements
    (Taylor & Francis, 2018-05-10) Attrill, Stacie Lorraine ; Brebner, Christine Mary ; Marsh, Claire
    Few studies have examined experiences and learning from the viewpoint of interprofessional facilitators of student placements, and limited research has investigated this learning enacted across traditional service boundaries or between health and education practitioners. This study aimed to address these gaps by exploring perceptions about the learning and experiences of Early Childhood Educators (ECEs) who facilitated placements in childcare settings for speech-language pathology students from a health professional background. Lave and Wenger’s theory of Legitimate Peripheral Participation was utilised to design and interpret this study. Seven ECEs from two childcare centres and four Centre Directors participated in focus groups and individual semi structured interviews respectively. Thematic analysis revealed five themes that described how the ECEs came to accept the students as legitimate members of their practice community, and how this subsequently facilitated the ECEs’ learning. The themes of power described in previous studies that explored status and hierarchical differences between facilitators and students from differing professions were not identified in this study. This absence of observed power differential, in addition to the embedded nature of the placement design, and the students’ participation in the ECEs’ everyday activities and routines contributed to the ECEs’ positive interprofessional learning.
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    International students in speech-language pathology clinical education placements: perceptions of experience and competency development
    (Taylor & Francis, 2015-03-12) Attrill, Stacie Lorraine ; Lincoln, Michelle ; McAllister, Sue Margery
    Purpose: This study aimed to describe perceptions of clinical placement experiences and competency development for international speech-language pathology students and to determine if these perceptions were different for domestic students. Method: Domestic and international students at two Australian universities participated in nine focus group interviews. Thematic analysis led to the identification of two themes shared by international and domestic students and several separate themes. Result: Shared themes identified the important influence of students’ relationships with clinical educators, unique opportunities and learning that occurs on placement. International student themes included concerns about their communication skills and the impact of these skills on client progress. They also explored their adjustment to unfamiliar placement settings and relationships, preferring structured placements to assist this adjustment. Domestic student themes explored the critical nature of competency attainment and assessment on placement, valuing placements that enabled them to achieve their goals. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that international students experience additional communication, cultural and contextual demands on clinical placement, which may increase their learning requirements. Clinical education practices must be responsive to the learning needs of diverse student populations. Strategies are suggested to assist all students to adjust to the professional and learning expectations of clinical education placements.
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    Predictors of professional placement outcome: cultural background, English speaking and international student status
    (Springer, 2016-08-04) Attrill, Stacie Lorraine ; McAllister, Sue Margery ; Lincoln, Michelle
    Placements provide opportunities for students to develop practice skills in professional settings. Learning in placements may be challenging for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students, international students, or those without sufficient English proficiency for professional practice. This study investigated whether these factors, which are hypothesized to influence acculturation, predict poor placement outcome. Placement outcome data were collected for 854 students who completed 2747 placements. Placement outcome was categorized into ‘Pass’ or ‘At risk’ categories. Multilevel binomial regression analysis was used to determine whether being CALD, an international student, speaking ‘English as an additional language’, or a ‘Language other than English at home’ predicted placement outcome. In multiple multilevel analysis speaking English as an additional language and being an international student were significant predictors of ‘at risk’ placements, but other variables tested were not. Effect sizes were small indicating untested factors also influenced placement outcome. These results suggest that students’ English as an additional language or international student status influences success in placements. The extent of acculturation may explain the differences in placement outcome for the groups tested. This suggests that learning needs for placement may differ for students undertaking more acculturative adjustments. Further research is needed to understand this and to identify placement support strategies.
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    Teachers' phonological awareness assessment practices, self-reported knowledge and actual knowledge: the challenge of assessing what you may know less about
    (Edith Cowan University, 2018) Carson, Karyn ; Bayetto, Anne Elizabeth
    This study investigates the relationship between early childhood (EC) and early years’ primary school (EYPS) teachers’ phonological awareness (PA) assessment practices, self-reported PA knowledge and actual PA knowledge. Method: A survey design was employed whereby 102 registered Australian EC and EYPS teachers responded to questions regarding PA assessment practices, selfreported PA knowledge and actual PA knowledge. Results: The results showed: a) more than 80% of teachers use PA assessments, with EYPS teachers conducting frequent assessments and EC teachers conducting rare-to-occasional assessments; b) overestimation of self-reported PA knowledge; c) low levels of actual PA knowledge; and d) high usage of observations and professional judgement as assessment methods despite limited own PA knowledge. Implications: Increasing EC and EYPS teachers’ knowledge of PA and improving their self-appraisal skills is critical for high-quality teacher PA assessment practices, and it illustrates the need for robust pre- and in-service teacher training.
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    IQ, non-cognitive and social-emotional parameters influencing education in speech- and languageimpaired children
    (Cogent OA, 2017-07-31) Ullrich, Dieter ; Ullrich, Katja ; Marten, Magret
    Speech-/language-impaired (SL)-children face problems in school and later life. The significance of “non-cognitive, social-emotional skills” (NCSES) in these children is often underestimated. Aim: Present study of affected SL-children was assessed to analyse the influence of NCSES for long-term school education. Methods: Nineteen severely SL-impaired children (7 girls, 12 boys) from a specialised kindergarten were followed; follow-up period: Up to 12 years; the different skills or parameters were known. Results: Fourteen children visited successfully a regular secondary school (RS), five children a "school focussing on learning problems" (SFL). SL-differences between the children attending RS and SFL were small; differences in “IQ” and “self-confidence” were significant, smaller differences were observed concerning “skills at crafts/construction” and "auditory-visual perception". Summary: Although the study group is small, results give evidence that beside SL- and "cognitive” skills "non-cognitive, social-emotional skills" are of major importance for long-term school education of SL-impaired children. These soft skills seem to be particularly important for “special need children” with SL-impairment.
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    Conversation Analysis of Repair in Interaction with Adults who Have Acquired HI
    (Sonova., 2009-10) Lind, Christopher ; Okell, Elise ; Golab, Jenna
    This chapter presents a summary of some recent re-search which has been undertaken to address the pat-terns of conversational behaviour in interaction involv-ing adults who have post-lingual hearing impairment (HI). The purpose behind this research is to develop a clinical assessment and intervention protocol for assist-ing HI adults and their conversation partners in reduc-ing the impact of conversation breakdown and its repair in everyday talk. Lind (this volume) lists various conversational be-haviours which arise in the conversation of HI adults and which have been identified by the authors as being mal-adaptive . Each of these behaviours may evolve to be a genuine target for intervention. However, at this point, the patterns of most of these behaviours as they are in-fluenced by one person’s HI are not yet well enough un-derstood nor are they yet clearly distinguished from the same behaviours as they occur in conversations not in-fluenced by HI. Until evidence of their patterns of occur-rence and their sequential consequences is established they cannot readily be translated into goals for assess-ment or intervention. Amongst these behaviours, conversation repair has been the most commonly identified therapy target, for two reasons. First, it is the only one of these behaviours that can be identified a priori as a problem for conversa-tional fluency. Repair is by its very nature the result of a breakdown in mutual understanding in the conversa-tion. Participants’ attempts to resolve the breakdown inhe immediate environment in which it occurred speaks to the importance to the talkers of re-instating mutual understanding. Second, there is now a growing body of research that identifies the patterns of repair as they may be influenced by post-lingual HI. The common se-quential behaviours in one particular type of repair were outlined briefly in Lind (this volume). Two additional ex-amples are provided here also. This series of projects from our recent research has been designed as the early stages in an attempt to ad-dress the foundation issues in conversation-based ther-apy; a model of therapy in which clinical tasks directly address conversation difficulties arising as a result of one participant having a post-lingual hearing impair-ment. The studies have been designed to address key questions about the clinical patterns of repair behaviour, including: • Can we reliably sample conversation repair? • Is repair behaviour consistent over time? • Is repair influenced by intervention? and • Does repair in conversationally-oriented clinical tasks mirror repair in conversation sampling?