Browsing Australian Bulletin of Labour by Title
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ItemThe ACTU’s response to the growth in long-term casual employment in Australia(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2001) Watts, Richard"The steady growth in the level of and nature of casual employment in Australia poses unique challenges for the union movement. With a quarter of Australian workers and a third of women in the workforce now employed as casuals, a fresh look at the union movement’s traditional response to casual employment is required. The ACTU has recognised the changes in the labour force and the need to adopt a strategy which protects the interests of casual employees, whilst maintaining and enhancing the interests of ongoing part-time and full-time employees. This article outlines one element of the ACTU strategy, the campaign for parental leave for long-term casuals." ItemAdding insult to injury: how work-life pressures affect the participation of low-paid workers in vocational education and training(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Pocock, Barbara; Skinner, Natalie JaneThis paper applies a work-life lens to examine the barriers and challenges confronting low-paid workers in their participation in vocational education and training. It utilises data from a large national survey of Australian workers, as well as qualitative material arising from interviews and focus groups amongst workers, students, and industry representatives in the retail, food processing, and aged-care industries. The findings illustrate how money and time pressures constrain the participation of low-paid workers in vocational education, and how these particularly affect low-paid women. Implications for policy are discussed. ItemAdding Migrants to the Mix: The Demography of the Labour Force Participation Rate, 2000 to 2010(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2013) Cully, M"Between 2000 and 2010, the labour force participation rate in Australia increased by more than 2 percentage points to reach a record high by the end of the decade. This article decomposes the change in the participation rate to examine the respective contributions of age, gender, and birthplace. There are three strong findings. First, among the Australian-born, increases in the propensity to participate in the labour force—among women and older persons—fully offsets the downward pull of ageing. Second, among the overseas-born, there is both a reverse-ageing effect—reflecting the large influx of young migrants over the past decade—and the same higher propensity to participate among women and older persons. The end result is that migrants added 1.9 percentage points to the aggregate participation rate over the past decade. Third, controlling for age and gender, participation rates for the overseas-born remain lower than they are for the Australian-born people. There has been some convergence over the decade for men, but not for women." ItemAdjustment, Well-being and Help-seeking Among Australian FIFO Mining Employees(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2014) Vojnovic, Philippa; Michelson, Grant; Jackson, Denise; Bahn, Susanne"The theme of fly-in fly-out (FIFO) employment arrangements has attracted considerable policy and media interest, yet there is limited knowledge about the impact of such employment on workers and how they might manage the various strains associated with FIFO work. To advance this line of research, this article examines the antecedent factors of and relationships between adjustment, well-being, and help-seeking among FIFO employees. Our primary contribution is to develop a model and a series of propositions which will assist researchers, the industry, and policy-makers to understand the complex circumstances and impacts of FIFO employment better." ItemThe Aged Care Workforce: Methods to Increase Supply to Remedy Possible Shortages(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2007) Flavel, J.This paper examines the labour supply of Australian aged care workers to determine methods for increasing supply to remedy possible shortages in the workforce. The possibility of increasing supply is tested through examination of descriptive statistics and estimations of labour supply models. The findings show that supply could be increased by removing impediments to adjustment of workers' hours and by decreasing paperwork requirements to allow more work hours for direct caring tasks. The wage elasticity of supply for existing workers is found to be negative for each direct care occupation, even with a measure of labour supply that takes into account desired hours of work. This suggests that wage increases will not be effective in increasing supply of current workers and provides some evidence that aged care occupations have backward bending labour supply curves. ItemAkubras to Hard Hats: Easing Skill Shortages through Labour Harmonisation Strategies(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2013) Storer, C; Connell, J"This article examines skill and labour shortages within rural agricultural industries in Western Australia. It draws on primary and secondary data, including 600 survey respondents in the sector. It is determined that there may be a shortage of farm workers during the busy seasons, while they are unemployed during the low seasons. Consequently, it is proposed that a human capability framework is utilised to encourage farm owners and (or) workers to consider the potential for labour-harmonisation (LH) strategies which would allow workers to transit between working on the land during the busy seasons and in mining during the low seasons. The outcomes of the study are considered in relation to indicators of precarious work illustrating that LH could enable an easing of labour shortages for both the farming and mining sectors, while providing benefits for the respective workers, employers, and the region in general." ItemApprenticeship training and productivity growth: a case study of the Australian construction industry(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2015) Chancellor, W; Abbott, MalcolmThis article explores the effect of apprenticeship training on productivity in the Australian construction industry. Using state-level data, the correlation between the level of training and productivity is analysed. The results are then used to build on anecdotal evidence to suggest a firm, pre-existing, positive relationship between training and productivity. In addition, the level of apprenticeship training in Australia is related to the composition and general characteristics of the Australian construction industry. ItemArbitration Extinguished: the Impact of the Work Choice Legislation on the Australian Industrial Relations Commission(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2006) Forsyth, A.No abstract ItemAre all workers influenced to stay by similar factors, or should different retention strategies be implemented? Comparing younger and older aged-care workers in Australia(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2015) Radford, Katrina; Chapman, GeoffreyThe global financial crisis led many older workers to delay retirement or to re-enter the workforce (O'Loughlin, Humpel and Kendig 2010). This has resulted in an increase in age diversity within organisations. This age diversity leads to improved creativity (Crampton and Hodge 2007) and improved productivity (Ilmakunnas and Ilmakunnas 2011). However, for human resource management professionals, age diversity can be challenging. Research comparing younger and older workers’ intentions to stay is limited; this study continues that inquiry. To investigate intentions, a cross-sectional questionnaire was distributed to 2118 employees in the aged-care sector; 359 useable questionnaires were analysed. Results revealed similarities and differences between younger and older workers’ intentions to stay. Variables such as perceived organisational support, perceived supervisor support, and job embeddedness are analysed. ItemAustralian Labour Market Flows over the Business Cycle(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2011) Chindamo, P.This paper analyses the behaviour of Australian labour market transition rates. Since the early 1980s, the job-finding rate has been significantly more volatile than the job-loss rate and it is strongly pro-cyclical. The economic downturns of the early 1980s and early 1990s were associated with up to a 10 percentage points decline in the average job-finding rate. In comparison, the recent economic downturn was associated with a less significant decline in the job-finding rate. During these periods, the job-loss rate has shown less significant volatility. The findings of this paper suggest that the job search activities of workers are potentially more relevant in explaining the volatility of labour market variables such as the unemployment rate, and whether emerging skill shortages can be addressed. Policies that assist job search and the skills development of workers are important, as is the intensity of workers' search activity. ItemAustralian Labour Market Reform - What Needs to be Done?(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2006) Blandy, R.No abstract ItemThe Australian Strike Rate and Industrial Relations: a Brief Reply to Perry(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2004) Healy, Joshua GregoryN/A ItemAustraliaʼs 1990s Productivity Surge: A Response to Keith Hancockʼs Challenge(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2005) Parham, DN/A ItemAWAs: A review of the literature and debates(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2002) Van Barneveld, K; Waring, PThe re-election of the Howard Government in the 2001 federal election has secured the place of AWAs in Australian industrial relations. Yet their continued presence does not remain free of controversy or conjecture. In this paper we survey the extant literature on AWAs, noting in particular, the debates over various aspects of their operation and effect. We conclude by outlining a research agenda to resolve the most critical questions raised by the literature review, and a proposal that the Office of the Employment Advocate consider gathering new data to improve AWA research. ItemBalancing Work, Family and Life: Introduction to the Special Edition(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2010) Burgess, J; Waterhouse, J ItemBargaining for welfare: Gender consequences of Australia's dual welfare model(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2003) Jefferson, Therese; Preston, Alison"The tradition in Australia of delivering welfare benefits through the industrial relations system rather than through social insurance schemes has important implications for coverage and adequacy of important forms of income protection and maintenance. Using data from a large-scale survey, this paper examines access to two forms of social benefit: paid maternity/paternity leave and retirement income in the form of occupational superannuation. Patterns of coverage indicate that those with limited bargaining power in the labour market are more likely to miss out on these benefits. These results indicate a necessity for maintaining the coverage and level of benefits available through publicly provided schemes such as the Aged Pension. The findings also support the current push for a nationally legislated, government funded, paid maternity leave scheme." ItemBeyond our control: labour adjustment in response to the global recession by multinational auto companies in Australia(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2012) Auer, Peter; Clibborn, Stephen; Lansbury, Russell DIn response to the global recession, many multinational companies (MNCs) in the auto industry adjusted labour levels in their plants around the world. This paper examines the responses of Ford, GM, and Bosch in relation to plants in their home countries and in their subsidiary companies in Australia. The case studies revealed the emergence of 'hybrid' forms of employment relations practices among these MNCs, which were the product of convergence around commercial imperatives, as well as divergence due to the roles played by governments and trade unions in the respective countries. ItemBeyond performance indicators: A case study in aged care(National Institute of Labour Studies, 2003) Stack, S"Benchmarking both absenteeism and labour turnover rates focuses on centrally driven performance measures emerging in aged care organisations in the health sector. This case study suggests that there is a need for performance indicators to take broader account of the essential characteristics of care work and the impact on employees of the changing focus of aged care work. Study participants express concerns about their working conditions and the impact that these have on their well being. They are also concerned about the interests of another group, the residents in aged care facilities, and the quality of care for those residents. The paper identifies some recent trends in reporting human resource management outcomes that are consistent with the expectations of New Public Management (NPM). It then outlines the case study approach, briefly describing the aged care organisation involved and some of the study outcomes. Absentee rates and factors accounting for it are highlighted and the paper discusses the unique features of care work and the different ways it is made more difficult by NPM priorities. These priorities not only appear to affect negatively the working life of aged care workers but also point to underlying problems that question the efficacy of NPM when applied to the essential relational elements of care work. While acknowledging some personal factors accounting for exhaustion and illness among respondents, the paper reveals that the requirement on them to report continuously and document activities effectively increases the administrative component of their work. This reduces the time available for hands-on care. In the absence of additional resources and organisational support, these factors inhibit key aspects of effective caring, increase the likelihood of burnout and absenteeism, and ultimately affect labour turnover."