Browsing 2015 Special Issue of Modern Greek Studies (Australia and New Zealand) - Reading, Interpreting, Experiencing by Title
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ItemAristotle and real possibility(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Quigley, PeterRoss, Hintikka, Waterlow and Makin have all suggested that there is something problematic about Aristotle’s treatment of possibility. I will canvas their concerns and propose that the problem is not so much with Aristotle as the fact that the notion of possibility is not a single simple concept. I will present eight different components of the notion of possibility and suggest that Aristotle may have been aware of all of them. I will conclude whilst his treatment can appear inconsistent, it is instead, an attempt to give a complete description of a complex notion. ItemAristotle on being: an Aristotelian critique of Russell’s theory of existence(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Couvalis, Spyridon GeorgeAristotle explains existence through postulating essences that are intrinsic and perception independent. I argue that his theory is more plausible than Hume’s and Russell’s theories of existence. Russell modifies Hume’s theory because he wants to allow for the existence of mathematical objects. However, Russell’s theory facilitates a problematic collapse of ontology into epistemology, which has become a feature of much analytic philosophy. This collapse obscures the nature of truth. Aristotle is to be praised for starting with a clear account of ordinary objects rather than immediately reifying mathematical objects. He thus allows us to have a coherent account of existence and truth, and to easily resist collapsing ontology into epistemology. ItemAristotle, potential and actual, conflicts(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Turner, Andrew JIn The Metaphysics Book Theta, Chapter four, Aristotle claims that to state that “some X is possible but X will never be” is a mistake. In effect, he collapses the possible into the actual. This view conflicts with the existence of dispositions which I argue exist, as they are indispensable to science. In Theta Chapter three, Aristotle sets out a test of possibility whereby we assume that some entity exists and then see if an impossibility ensues. I apply this test to Aristotle’s theory and show that it entails the impossibility of dispositions. Given the clear existence of dispositions, Aristotle’s conflation of the possible with the actual fails his own test of possibility and must be wrong. ItemAustralian women in Macedonia(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Diamadis, PanayiotisAustralians have had a relationship with Macedonia since the earliest days of European settlement. A little explored aspect of this is the activities of Australian women in Macedonia, before the days of cheap transport and mass tourism. These women were nurses with the Australian and British forces on the Macedonian Front of 1916–1918. Others were humanitarian relief workers, assisting survivors of the Armenian, Assyrian and Hellenic Genocides (1914–1924) to rebuild their health and their lives. Virtually forgotten are Red Cross medical staff involved in repatriating refugees during the bloody Hellenic Civil War (1946–1949). All these remarkable individuals lived extraordinary lives in answering the “call from Macedonia”, as the Apostle Paul once expressed it. They also left us a unique collection of photographs, letters and other documents of their experiences: the people they met, the places they visited, the experiences they enjoyed and endured. ItemBlogging: the use of digital representation of the migration experience(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Palaktsoglou, Maria; Shialis, Maria; Sutcliffe, KatherineTo understand the migrant experience, researchers have traditionally used methods such as ethnography and the analysis of written records to analyse the process of migration; however a new primary source – new-media or digital records – is becoming more and more relevant to the field. The new primary sources take many forms, but a common new-medium, used by those migrating from Greece in the second decade of the twenty-first century, is that of blogs. This preliminary and exploratory study seeks to examine blogs written by people choosing to leave Greece. Using a qualitative analysis of themes extrapolated from blog posts, both personal and practical, this study illustrates themes discussed by bloggers to communicate their experience, and suggests further uses for new-media in the field of migration studies. ItemDon Dunstan & Cyprus: the1957 "Fact-Finding Mission" and beyond(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Shialis, MariaThis paper examines for the first time the relationship Don Dunstan, the Member of Parliament for Norwood (1953–1979) and Premier of South Australia (1967–1968 and 1970–1979) had with the Cypriot population of South Australia. It analyses primary resources, such as oral history testimonies, Dunstan’s manuscripts and archival material, along with secondary resources, such as newspaper articles and books. The findings indicate Dunstan played a significant role within the Cypriot and wider community throughout his political career. ItemExile and the (im)possible nostos: Greek autofiction and politics in the 1970s(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Ioannidou, StavriniThis paper considers Vassilikos’ Γλαύκος Θρασάκης (written in 1973–4) and Axioti’s Η Κάδμω (written in 1971–2) as postmodern narratives of exile, against the politics of their time. What is essentially new about my reading is that it is informed by the theoretical discourse of autofiction — a term devised by Serge Doubrovsky in 1977. Αutofiction encompasses fictional texts that are at the crossroads between the autobiography and the novel. Both texts oscillate between the two aforementioned writing tropes and are based on the authors’ experience of exile. I shall investigate why two politically engaged writers produced “autofictions” during the final years of the dictatorship. Building upon existing argumentation suggesting that the political condition in Greece encouraged postmodern literary modes (Papanikolaou, 2005), I shall argue that Axioti and Vassilikos formulated a Greek version of autofiction avant la lettre in order to articulate the identity of the writer in exile. ItemFoodstuffs imports and diet change in Cyprus, 1881–1946/7(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Kazamias, Georgios; Panayiotou, MariaUsing information from the import statistics found in the Cyprus Blue Books, this paper aims to examine the trends of diet change in Cyprus, in the period 1881–1948. Data on imported foodstuffs as reported in the Blue Books published in the Census Years (1881, 1891, 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1946) is collected; the special focus is on (a) “new” foodstuff categories (e.g. “fine cheeses”, imported liquor, beer) and (b) on the bulk import of foodstuffs either not produced at all in Cyprus, or produced in quantities not sufficient for the needs of the population. Some of these are sugar, flour, pasta, rice et al. Quantitative data is processed to produce a per capita consumption in the census years. The result will indicate the general trend in diet change, as “new” food categories were made available and incorporated in the local diet. Information from sources such as advertisements as well as information on new manufacturing plants (e.g. pasta factories and breweries) will be used to complement and partially validate the trends on diet change in the years of colonial rule in Cyprus. ItemGreece and third generation Greek Australians: a case study between students who had visited the country and those who didn't(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Kyriakopoulou-Baltatzi, ChrysanthiPlease note: This article is in Greek. Greece and Third Generation Greek Australians: a case study between students who had visited the country and those who didn’t: The paper examines how the journeys of third generation young Greek Australians to Greece is affecting their engagement with the country in comparison with those who did not do the journey. The findings demonstrated that four out of ten students have travelled to Greece, noteworthy number with given constraints, such as the high cost of travel and the long distance between Greece and Australia. The symbolisms of Greece, as a country of origin, culture, holiday and travel destination manifested in high rates for both comparison groups. Students who travelled to Greece compared with those who did not, are linked more closely with the Greek values, practices and knowledge. However, variations in rates between the two groups are not widespread. Therefore, it is not proved that trips to Greece are a key formatting factor of Greek values, practices and knowledge, although they play an enriching role. A substantive relationship of the third generation with Greece and Greek culture is structured through multilevel enculturation process in their family, school and Greek community environment. Within such context, Greece does not represent a refreshing destination, but mainly a starting point for a new relationship with their Hellenic heritage during the journey of Greek Australian adolescents towards their adulthood. ItemGreek currents in Australian waters: Greek-Australians and the sea, 1810s–2013(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Janiszewski, Leonard; Alexakis, EffyThe sea has been an important element in the history of both the ancient and modern Greeks, providing passage, local livelihoods and access to international trade. In the modern era, Antipodean waters have been part of this ongoing relationship. The sea brought the earliest Greek settlers to Australia, together with the majority of post-World War II Greek migrants, offering them employment opportunities, adventure, recreation and sport. This paper provides evidence of the significance of the Greek contribution to Australia’s maritime activities — a contribution that has helped to mould modern Australia’s connection with the sea. ItemGreek embroideries: the early collectors and their ongoing legacy(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Simpson, Cheryl AnnThe early collectors of Greek embroidery left a substantial legacy of unique textile work for the benefit of all. Today, we can still see examples of these rare embroideries in major museums such as the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. This paper explores the influence of political debate about the nature of being Greek on the collecting practice of British archaeologists. It shows that due to views prevailing at the time, there are significant omissions in major collections. ItemImperial and empirical city: Famagusta’s representations in the poetry of Kyriakos Charalambides(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Hadjipavlou, NicolettaThe word “empire” denotes something great and strong, old and new and is often associated with both the past and the present. For historians and theorists, the word empire may be coupled with power, expansion, imperialism and politics, whereas for most people it may be associated with stories, fascination and extravagance. For the Cypriot poet, Kyriakos Charalambides (1940– ), “empire” is a life experience and makes up both his recent and distant past. This paper aims to give a close reading of Charalambides’ representations of the Byzantine Empire in his poetic work through the parallel or identification of the city of Famagusta — the poet’s muse — to the imperial city of Constantinople. Charalambides’ representation of the Byzantine Empire is recorded through a conscious turn or journey to the past, a journey filtered through the events of the coup d’état and the Turkish invasion of 1974. ItemLanguage and age identities among older Greek Cypriot women(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Charalambidou, AnnaThis contribution discusses the language and social practices of older Greek Cypriot women. It looks at the casual, every-day interactions of an all-female group, with a long interactional history (most of them in their seventies). The ethnomethodological approach to identities is adopted, and a toolkit from membership categorisation analysis and conversation analysis is used. This paper shows how the participants employ various terms, with distinct meaning and associated features, to categorise self and others as “older women”. The discussion includes certain emblematic uses of code-switching between (varieties of) Cypriot Greek and Standard Modern Greek and shows how this discourse strategy contributes to the construction of old-age identities with distinct associations. On the whole, this bottom-up analysis provides an overview of older Cypriot women’s situated understanding of their age identities and how the deployment of various category labels of different registers ultimately achieves positive self-presentation and dissociation from age-induced decline. ItemLongevity in elderly Greek migrants to Australia may be explained by adherence to a traditional Greek Mediterranean diet?(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Itsiopoulos, CatherineBetween 1988 and 1991 data were collected on diet, health and lifestyle on 818 people aged 70 and over from countries/cultures experiencing longevity: Swedes, Greeks, Australians (Greeks and Anglo-Celts) and Japanese. This was known as the Food Habits in Later Life study (FHILL). Subjects from these 5 cohorts were followed up for 5–7 years to determine survival status and to examine the effect of diet and lifestyle variables on longevity. The FHILL study was the first to develop a score which captured the key features of a traditional plant-based Mediterranean diet pattern (MDPS). A higher score (i.e greater adherence to this dietary pattern) improved overall survival in both Greek and non-Greek elderly reducing the risk of death by 50% after 5–7 years. Of the 5 cohorts studied, first generation elderly Greeks in Australia had the lowest risk of death, even though they had the highest rates of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (developed in the early years of migration with the introduction of energy dense foods). This was called a “Greek migrant Morbidity Mortality Paradox”. Greek migrants appeared to be “getting away” with these CVD risk factors because of their continued adherence to a Mediterranean diet, especially legumes. This paper reviews a) the findings from the FHILL study b) other studies on Greek migrants to Australia c) clinical studies investigating possible mechanisms. We propose that the Mediterranean diet may be operating to reduce the risk of death and attenuate established CVD risk factors by beneficially altering the gut microbiome. ItemThe Master Argument of Diodorus Cronus as an alternative account of modality(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Mortensen, ChrisThis paper considers an argument due to Diodorus Cronus (3rd century BCE), called by the ancients the Master Argument, which provides a theory of modality different from the modern orthodoxy of modal logic. It is argued that the Master Argument is supported by plausible intuitions, and that the modal logic obtained has reasonable epistemological motivation. ItemModern Greek at tertiary level: applying innovative methods of effective assessment and delivery online(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Wright, Cecily; Litinas, Antonios; Palaktsoglou, Maria; Tsianikas, MichaelIn a determined effort to preserve the Modern Greek language as an important part of Australia’s cultural and linguistic diversity, the Logos Australian Centre for Hellenic Language and Culture established at Flinders University in South Australia in 2011 has been enhancing the delivery of Modern Greek and enabling a wider delivery of this small enrolment language by developing online content and an effective model for delivery via synchronous and asynchronous technologies. Six Modern Greek language topics, two cultural topics and some extension materials have been developed and delivered online via the university’s learning management system known as Flinders Learning Online (FLO). ItemThe moral of the story: on fables and philosophy in Plato's 'Symposium'(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Benitez, RickScholars have puzzled over the fact that Plato’s criticisms of poetry are themselves contained in mimetic works. This paper sheds light on that phenomenon by examining an analogous one. The Symposium contains one fable (told by Aristophanes) which is criticised by means of another (told by Diotima) which is thought to represent Plato’s own view. Diotima’s fable, however, is suspended within a larger narrative that invites us to examine and question it. The Symposium thus affords opportunity to observe Plato’s criticisms of a genre and the qualifications that must be made regarding his own use of it. In particular, the Symposium emphasises that stories have no automatic claim to authority, whether they are told by a poet, or a priest or a philosopher. The upshot for Plato’s dialogues is that they remain always a starting point for philosophy: they are neither specimens of philosophical poetry nor philosophy per se. ItemOntology and explanation(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Mann, ScottThis paper critically assesses some recent attempts to develop and update the basic categories of Aristotle’s ontology, by Jonathan Lowe and Brian Ellis. It defends these attempts in face of criticisms by John Heil, while also addressing, and responding to, some possible weaknesses in Lowe and Ellis’s accounts. The paper defends Boyd’s idea of higher order kinds as homeostatic property clusters. ItemParochialism in Perth: aspects of regionalism amongst Western Australia's Castellorizian community (Final)(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Yiannakis, John NFounded in 1912, the Castellorizian Association of Western Australia was the first Greek regional fraternity established anywhere in Australia. In the celebratory atmosphere of its centenary year, Perth’s Castellorizian population had the opportunity for a more critical and introspective examination of its community role. This paper seeks to outline aspects of that role and contribution to the Western Australian Greek community, past and present, while noting that in undertaking that role, Castellorizians were often dismissive of other Greeks and have sometimes excluded them from the local community’s mythology. This attitude has impacted on community politics, relationships and development. While such parochialism is not unique to Castellorizians or Western Australia, did Perth’s isolation, Castellorizian numerical dominance and assimilation accentuate this trend and to what effect? ItemPatriotism and deconstruction in Greece in the period of crisis: an attempt at synthesis(Modern Greek Studies Association of Australia and New Zealand, 2015) Frantzi, KyriakiPlease note: This article is in Greek. Patriotism and Deconstruction in Greece in the Period of Crisis: An Attempt at Synthesis. The polarity patriotism/deconstruction has dominated public debates in Greece in the period of crisis, and postmodernism has exerted a significant influence on politics, culture and the education community since the entry of the country to the Eurozone in the mid-1990s. Given that these developments took place in a society with ongoing external financial support, this article examines the standpoint of collective subjects of self-determination emerging in the post-Junta era, such as radical feminists, extra parliamentary initiatives and groups related to the New Age movement, towards self-determination of the country. The analysis points to an asymmetry between global inflows and local material and knowledge production, which fuels divisions and misconceptions in identity issues. It further discusses the possible usage of deconstruction as an ontological principle in contrast to that of an investigatory and reflective tool that takes into account the relational frame to which it is applied.