Cell sheet therapy has emerged as a potential therapeutic option for reparation and reconstruction of damaged tissues and organs. However, an effective means to assess the fate and distribution of transplanted cell sheets in a serial and noninvasive manner is still lacking. To investigate the feasibility of tracking Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) sheet in vivo using ultrasmall super-paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (USPIO), canine ADSCs were cultured and incubated with USPIO and 0.75 μg/ml Poly-L-Lysine (PLL) for 12 h. Labeling efficiency, cell viability, apoptotic cell rate were assessed to screen the optimum concentrations of USPIO for best labeling ADSCs. The results showed ADSCs were labeled by USPIO at an iron dose of 50 μg/ml for a 12 h incubation time, which can most efficiently mark cells and did not impair the cell survival, self-renewal, and proliferation capacity. USPIO-labeled ADSCs sheets can be easily and clearly detected in vivo and have persisted for at least 12 weeks. Our experiment confirmed USPIO was feasible for in vivo labeling of the ADSCs sheets with the optimal concentration of 50 μg Fe/ml and the tracing time is no less than 12 weeks.