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ItemReworking the sociology of trust: making a semantic distinction between trust and dependence(The Australian Sociological Association, 2009) Meyer, Samantha B; Ward, Paul RussellTrust, as a sociological construct, has become increasingly important in recent times but an agreed definition is yet to be found. A potentially useful way of ‘defining’ trust is by distinguishing it from other semantically similar concepts. Niklas Luhmann has provided semantic distinctions between trust and familiarity, and trust and confidence. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of a further semantic distinction between trust and dependence. This distinction allows us to further define trust and also to investigate the difference between ‘trust’ and ‘dependence’. ItemThe relationship between sociology and cognate disciplines: law(The Australian Sociological Association, 2009) Roach Anleu, Sharyn Leanne; Mack, Kathleen MargaretThis paper considers the relationship between sociology and law, as a cognate discipline, through a discussion of social research into legal processes and settings, sometimes referred to as empirical socio-legal research. It first addresses the different meanings of research for social scientists and for lawyers, then investigates some particular challenges for cross/inter/multidisciplinary socio-legal research, and identifies the growing demands for empirical analyses of law and legal processes. ItemCamouflage: how the visual arts and sociology make sense of the military(The Australian Sociological Association, 2009) Wadham, Benjamin Allan; Hamilton, Amy RuthThe military is the core institution of state sanctioned violence in Western liberal democracies. In the last decade or so the role of the military has changed and militarism has become an increasingly conspicuous aspect of public life. The idea of camouflage is used and developed to explore how collaboration between the visual arts and sociology can be used to denaturalise the taken-for-granted assumptions and beliefs about the military in Australian society. Camouflage is explained in its military utility, its psychological concept (Gestalt theory) the art camouflage movement and their developed techniques (eg Cubism, Dadaism), and in terms of deconstruction or sociological critique as a tool for making social relations that are culturally camouflaged visible. ItemHeteronormativity in online information about sex: A South Australian case study(SAGE Publications, 2013-03) Riggs, Damien WayneWhilst sex education in Australia has moved beyond a focus solely on abstinence, it is still in many instances shaped by what Silin (1995) refers to as the ‘silences’ that accompany topics considered unspeakable to young people. The present paper focuses specifically on one such silence, namely the representation of non-heterosexual sexualities and non-gender normative people in the context of sex education. By focusing on three South Australian websites that act as first ports of call in terms of information about sex and sex education to young people and their parents, the analysis provided suggests that two of the three websites evoke a range of heteronormative and gender normative assumptions, with one of these sites more explicitly emphasising reproductive heterosex, and the other adopting a liberal approach that nonetheless fails to adequately challenge stereotypes about non-heterosexuality and non-gender normativity. The third site, by contrast, provides relatively progressive inclusion of a range of genders and sexualities, and addresses homophobia and its effects. The paper concludes by suggesting that websites providing information about sex to young people and their parents must make a substantive shift away from perpetuating the silencing of marginal sexualities and genders, and towards contributing to open public discussion about young people and sex. ItemAnti-Asian sentiment amongst a sample of white Australian men on gaydar(Springer Verlag, 2013-06) Riggs, Damien WayneWhilst the homogenizing descriptor 'gay' is often used in a singular sense to refer to 'the gay community,' research has increasingly recognized that individuals within gay communities are as diverse as they are within the broader community. Importantly, recognition of this diversity requires an acknowledgement of the fact that, just as in the broader community, discrimination occurs within gay communities. The present study sought to examine the degree to which racism occurs within gay men's online communities (in the form of anti-Asian sentiment expressed in the profiles of a small number of the 60,082 White Australian gay men living in five major Australian states whose profiles were listed on the website gaydar.com.au during October 2010), the forms that such racism takes, and whether any White gay men resisted such racism. The findings report on a thematic and subsequent rhetorical analysis of the profiles of the sub-sample of 403 White gay men who expressed anti-Asian sentiment. Such sentiment, it was found, was expressed in four distinct ways: 1) the construction of racism as 'personal preference,' 2) the construction of Asian gay men as not 'real men,' 3) the construction of Asian gay men as a 'type,' and 4) the assumption that saying 'sorry' renders anti-Asian sentiment somehow acceptable. Whilst the numbers of White gay men expressing anti-Asian sentiment were relatively small, it is suggested that the potential impact of anti-Asian sentiment upon Asian gay men who view such profiles may be considerable, and thus that this phenomenon requires ongoing examination. Item‘They’re all just little bits, aren’t they?’: South Australian lesbian mothers’ experiences of marginalisation in primary schools(Taylor and Francis, 2013-08-20) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Willing, IndigoMultiple formations of family have always been a part of Australia’s social and historical landscape, yet social norms typically function to marginalise some family forms whilst according to others a privileged status. Marginalisation on the basis of sexuality, for example, whilst arguably somewhat less prevalent than in previous decades, nonetheless continues for those families positioned outside the heteronorm. Institutions such as schools can play an important role in transforming marginalising practices, yet research such as that presented in this paper suggests that schools often also perpetuate marginalisation, even if unintentionally. Drawing on interviews conducted with 23 lesbian mothers, the findings highlight the often subtle ways in which such mothers with children in South Australian primary schools experience marginalisation by educators. Specifically, we argue that marginalisation occurs in the form of injunctions made upon lesbian mothers to inform educators about their families (and to do so in often highly normative ways), to accept that it is their role to manage discrimination, and to treat as routine the marginalisation of their families. Such findings indicate that changes still remain necessary within Australian educational practices in order to ensure the full inclusion of lesbian mother families on terms of their own making. ItemTransgender men's self-representations of bearing children post-transition(Demeter Press, 2013-09) Riggs, Damien WayneSince reports of Thomas Beatie’s pregnancy appeared in the media in 2008, the visibility of transgender men having children post-transition has increased considerably. Whilst this visibility, it may be argued, has attracted negative attention to transgender men who choose to bear a child (and transgender men more broadly), it may also be argued that representations of transgender men bearing children have usefully drawn attention to the complex negotiations that transgender men undertake in having children. At the heart of these negotiations lies what is often framed as a competition between transgender men’s masculinity, and their undertaking of a role historically undertaken by people who identify as women (i.e., child bearing). Yet what is repeatedly demonstrated in transgender men’s own self-representations of their pregnancies post-transition, is that they are very much men, even if their masculinity is placed in question by a society that equates child bearing with women. The present chapter takes transgender men’s self-representations as its starting place in seeking to elaborate how such men reconcile their masculinity with child bearing. ItemRepresentations of reproductive citizenship and vulnerability in media reports of offshore surrogacy(Taylor and Francis, 2013-12-09) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Due, ClemenceIn his elaboration of the concept of ‘reproductive citizenship’, Turner (2001) suggested something of a homogeneous accumulation of cultural capital to those who make a reproductive contribution to contemporary western societies. The present paper takes up this suggestion and proposes that whilst reproduction is indeed a hallmark of contemporary citizenship, the cultural capital arising from this is still differentiated by mode of reproduction, with reproductive heterosex remaining the norm against which other modes are compared. This norm, it is suggested, produces what is termed here ‘reproductive vulnerability’, namely vulnerability arising from being located outside of the norm. Through an analysis of media representations of Australian people who have undertaken offshore surrogacy arrangements in India, the present paper demonstrates how reproductive vulnerability is highlighted only to be dismissed through recourse to the construction of those who undertake reproductive travel as agentic citizens. The paper concludes by considering what it would take for an ethics of reproductive travel to exist; one in which multiple, incommensurable vulnerabilities are taken into account, and the representation of which encourages, rather than inhibits, careful thought about the reproductive desires of all people. ItemConstructions of the 'best interests of the child' in New South Wales parliamentary debates on surrogacy(Palgrave Macmillan, 2014) Collins, Catherine Ruth; Riggs, Damien Wayne; Due, Clemence ItemTransgender women, parenting, and experiences of ageing(Demeter Press, 2014-08) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Kentlyn, SujayDespite positive changes in public attitudes towards transgender people amongst some sectors of society, for many transgender women the process of transitioning brings with it considerable loss. Transgender women may face the loss of friendships, the loss of employment, the loss of housing, and as is the case in this chapter, the loss of family. These losses can be exacerbated for transgender women who transition later in life, who may be married to a woman, and who may have had children. ItemImpact validity: A politics of possibilities(Wiley, 2014-12-04) Riggs, Damien WayneThis commentary reflects upon the possibilities opened up by the concept of ‘impact validity’. Particular attention is paid to three key issues that appear across the entire issue, namely: 1) the role of understandings of politics in research that aims to achieve impact validity, 2) the intersections of career and real world impact, and 3) how researchers who aim for impact validity manage the needs of the differing audiences of their work. Overall, the commentary suggests that the concept of impact validity holds great potential to contribute to how we think about the ways we do research, and the role that researchers can play in the public sphere in terms of creating the space for news ways of knowing about the world, in addition to encouraging those in positions of power to think about how they may usefully be influenced by academic knowledge. Key Words: impact validity, politics, research, policy, power ItemGay men's experience of surrogacy clinics in India(BMJ Publishing Group, 2015) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Due, Clemence; Power, JenniferAbstract: While growing numbers of Australian gay men are entering into 'offshore' surrogacy arrangements in order to become parents, little empirical research has been conducted with this population. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of interviews with 12 gay men who had entered into surrogacy arrangements in India. The findings outline both positive and negative experiences in terms of support pre-‐conception, during the birth and post-‐birth. Changes to legislation in India mean that gay men can no longer access surrogacy services there, but it is important to understand the experiences of men who had previously accessed those services. The paper concludes by highlighting aspects of the data that demonstrate the particular experiences of gay men who undertake offshore surrogacy arrangements, especially with regard to their need for support and involvement in all aspects of the process. A more thoroughly developed network of care may help to facilitate such support and this may further increase the positive outcomes reported by gay men who form families through surrogacy arrangements. ItemGay men's narratives of pregnancy in the context of commercial surrogacy(Demeter Press, 2015) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Dempsey, DeborahHistorically, gay men have primarily become fathers in the context of heterosexual relationships, or for some men through foster care, adoption, or co‐parenting arrangements as sperm donors (Riggs and Due). Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, gay men living in western countries have increasingly made use of commercial surrogacy services (Everingham, Stafford‐Bell, and Hammarberg). The increased use of these services has become possible as a result of legislative change in countries such as the US (in which many states now allow for the contracting of surrogacy services), in addition to the provision of services in countries where the regulation of commercial surrogacy has not occurred until relatively recently (such as India and Thailand). The rapid growth in the use of commercial surrogacy services by gay men has been shaped by factors such as 1) a desire for genetic relatedness between children and at least one of their fathers (in a couple), 2) the perception that commercial surrogacy allows men to have greater control over the process of having a child, and 3) the perception that commercial surrogacy arrangements offer greater legal security to gay men (Murphy; Tuazon‐McCheyne). Item‘It will be hard because I will have to learn lots of English’: Experiences of education for children newly arrived in Australia(Taylor & Francis, 2015-01-01) de Heer, N; Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien Wayne; Augoustinos, MarthaEducational experiences during childhood are critically important for development, but migrant children often experience unique challenges. To ameliorate these, extra training in English language - such as provided by the Intensive English language program in South Australia (IELP) - is frequently offered to children taking on English as an additional language (EAL). The present study aimed to examine the experience of transition into mainstream classes for children in the IELP, particularly in relation to their overall wellbeing. As such, the study utilised interviews conducted with newly arrived children in Australia aged five to 13 who were enrolled in an IELP, with interviews conducted both pre and post transition into mainstream primary school classes. The findings indicate that most children felt anxious prior to transition, especially regarding speaking English, but were less concerned about this once entering their new class. Making friends was considered to be difficult, but easier when there were children with whom they were familiar from other contexts, or if there was another child in the class with a shared cultural or linguistic background. ItemThe family and romantic relationships of trans and gender diverse Australians: an exploratory survey(Taylor and Francis, 2015-01-03) Riggs, Damien Wayne; von Doussa, Henry; Power, JenniferThe present paper contributes an Australian focus to the growing body of research on trans and gender diverse people’s family and romantic relationships. A survey designed by the authors was completed by 160 trans or gender diverse Australians. A negative correlation was found between discrimination from families of origin and perceptions of support, and conversely a positive correlation was found between perceptions of support and emotional closeness. Analysis of open-ended responses suggested that support was primarily constituted by 1) emotional support, 2), utilising correct pronouns and names, and 3) financial support. Discrimination by families of origin was primarily constituted by 1) refusal to use correct pronouns and names, 2) exclusion from family events, and 3) pathologising responses. The findings in regards to romantic relationships suggest that trans women were more likely than trans men or gender diverse people to experience challenges in negotiating romantic relationships. A negative correlation was found between difficulties in negotiating romantic relationships and belief in the likelihood that an ‘ideal’ romantic relationship would occur in the future. Difficulties in negotiating romantic relationships were primarily described in terms of 1) anxiety over potential responses, 2) discrimination from potential partners, and 3) lack of self-acceptance. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for clinical practice. Item‘25 degrees of separation’ versus the ‘ease of doing it closer to home’: Motivations to offshore surrogacy arrangements amongst Australian citizens(Edinburgh University Press, 2015-03) Riggs, Damien WayneAt present, onshore commercial surrogacy is illegal in all Australian states and territories. By contrast, offshore commercial surrogacy is legal in all bar one territory and two states. As a result, significant numbers of Australian citizens undertake travel each year to enter into commercial surrogacy arrangements. The present paper reports on findings derived from interview data collected with 21 Australian citizens who had children through an offshore commercial surrogacy arrangement, either in India or the United States. Framed by an understanding of the vulnerability that arises from the demand of reproductive citizenship, the analysis focuses specifically on whether or not the participants would have entered into an onshore commercial surrogacy arrangement had this been legal at the time. The findings suggest that for some participants, undertaking surrogacy ‘at a distance’ was perceived to be safer and provided a degree of privacy, whilst for other participants surrogacy closer to home would have removed some of the more challenging aspects of offshore arrangements. With these findings in mind, the paper concludes by considering Millbank’s (2014) suggestion that Australian states and territories should legalise onshore commercial surrogacy, and the barriers that may exist to the uptake of such potential legal change. ItemWhite Australian adoptive mothers' understandings of birth cultures and families(Taylor & Francis, 2015-05-11) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Due, ClemenceThis paper reports an analysis of interviews conducted with 10 White Australian women who had undertaken intercountry adoption. The paper begins with an overview of how issues of culture play out within discourses of intercountry adoption in general and how this occurs specifically in Australian policy in regard to intercountry adoption. The analysis highlights how the interviewees were in many ways inculcated in broader Australian discourses of intercountry adoption, as much as in some instances there was an attempt to resist this. The paper concludes by discussing how it might be possible for White adoptive mothers in Australia to do other than remain complicit with marginalizing accounts of adoptive children's birth cultures and parents. ItemAustralian Family Diversity: an Historical Overview 1960-2015(Flinders University, School of Social and Policy Studies, 2016) Riggs, Damien Wayne; Bartholomaeus, ClareOver the past three decades, increasing attention has been paid to the diversification of Australian families, particularly with regard to both modes of family formation and family structure. Researchers have provided extensive accounts of, for example, lesbian mother families, families formed through surrogacy, grandparents parenting their grandchildren, and the lives of people who were donor-conceived. These accounts, among many others, have served to expand our understanding of what counts as a family, and the specific experiences and needs of a range of family groups. At the same time, however, changes in the political landscape have increasingly brought to the fore an emphasis upon one particular form: the heterosexual nuclear family formed through reproductive heterosex. As such, whilst on the one hand we have seen increased recognition and indeed celebration of family diversification, we have also seen something of a push back against this diversification. The present report was developed in order to facilitate a robust, empirically-based discussion of the topic of family diversification in Australia. The report highlights two key points that address both the fact of diversification outlined above, and concerns that have arisen in response to it: First, changes to the face of Australian families have been slow yet consistent over the past five decades. Such changes have been brought about by developments in the realm of reproductive science, legislative change, and shifts in public attitudes. In this sense, diversification reflects the reality of Australian society, rather than being the agenda of any one group. Second, despite changes to the face of Australian families, much remains the same. In other words, the information presented in this report highlights both continuity and change. In drawing upon data collected by, amongst others, the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute for Health and Welfare, available both publically and through request by the authors, this report presents an overview of key family-related areas. As such, it builds upon the significant work undertaken by the Australian Institute of Family Studies in their Diversity and Change in Australian Families report (de Vaus, 2004) by adding a historical component. Mapping changes and continuity across time provides researchers, policy makers, and members of the public with an informed understanding of Australian family diversification. ItemCare for Children with Migrant or Refugee Backgrounds in the School Context(Cambridge University Press, 2016) Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien WayneWhile teachers are increasingly being asked to provide ‘care’ for students in their classrooms, very little research has explored what care might look like for students with migrant or refugee backgrounds. This paper reports on the findings of a study conducted with children when they began school in Australia in the Intensive English Language Program (IELP), with a focus on how care might be provided and defined. Participants were 63 migrant or refugee children (15 refugee students and 48 migrant students; 35 males and 28 females) aged between five and 13 years of age (M = 7.40 years, SD = 2.39), and 14 IELP teachers (10 women and four men). The aims of the broader study of which this paper forms one part were to explore experiences at school through a mixed-methods, participatory methodology. The current paper takes a deductive approach, and focuses specifically on the relationships between students and teachers as one dimension of care for students. We found that students had positive relationships with their teachers, and reported feeling safe at school. Teachers reported some challenges in relation to their relationships with students, particularly in the case of students with refugee backgrounds. We suggest that the concept of care for children with refugee and migrant backgrounds needs further work, particularly in mainstream education settings. ItemExploring trans and gender diverse issues in primary education in South Australia(Flinders University, 2016) Bartholomaeus, Clare; Riggs, Damien Wayne; Andrew, YarrowExecutive Summary An increasing number of young children identify with a gender that differs from that normatively expected of their natally-assigned sex (e.g. Smith & Matthews, 2015; Telfer, Tollit, & Feldman, 2015). Such young children tend to be referred to as trans or gender diverse. The term ‘trans’ is typically used to refer to people whose gender or gender expression differs from that normatively expected of their natally-assigned sex (where those born with a penis are assigned male and expected to act in stereotypically masculine ways or to present themselves as male, and where those born with a vagina are assigned female and expected to act in stereotypically feminine ways or to present themselves as female). The term ‘gender diverse’ is typically used to refer to people whose gender identity is not encompassed by the two categories ‘male’ or ‘female’. Importantly, the terms ‘trans’ and ‘gender diverse’ encompass a wide range of gender expressions. While population studies suggest that between 0.5% and 1% of people are trans or gender diverse (Clark et al., 2014; Conron, Scott, Stowell, & Landers, 2012), it has been suggested that figures of gender diversity are significantly higher during childhood (Möller, Schreier, Li, & Romer, 2009). Brill and Pepper (2008) argue that there are three typical ages when people acknowledge that they are trans or gender diverse: childhood, preteen/early adolescence, and late adolescence. For children who disclose that they are trans or gender diverse, the likelihood of having their gender affirmed by others is closely related to people’s understandings of gender diversity. Schools constitute a key context in which children may disclose that they are trans or gender diverse, thus highlighting the importance of schools providing affirming and informed responses. However, research with parents of trans and gender diverse primary school children suggests that a key barrier to inclusion in schools relates to staff members’ understandings of gender, and whether issues of gender diversity are viewed as taboo or are positively included within school policies and practices (Pullen Sansfaçon, Robichaud, & Dumais-Michaud, 2015). Australian research with students at the secondary level has clearly documented trans and gender diverse students’ negative experiences of school and the implications of this for their well-being (Jones & Hillier, 2013; Jones et al., 2016; Smith et al., 2014; Ullman, 2015). Australian research with parents of trans children, including at the primary level, has emphasised the importance of supportive schools, and the negative impact of gender stereotyping in schools (Riley, Sitharthan, Clemson, & Diamond, 2013), including by school counsellors and psychologists (Riggs & Bartholomaeus, 2015). The important role that schools can play is currently hindered in Australia by two key issues: 1) the lack of opportunities for educator professional development and support for working with trans and gender diverse students, and 2) the broader climate of misunderstanding and fear, evidenced in recent debates about the Safe Schools Coalition. The research documented in this report extends the limited amount of research about trans and gender diverse issues in primary education internationally. Rather than focusing on individual trans and gender diverse students, the research examines broader school cultures in relation to educator attitudes and knowledge and the usefulness of classroom resources in the form of picture books for creating inclusive schools. The project received ethics approval from Flinders University and the Department for Education and Child Development. The research objectives of the project were to: 1. Identify the existing attitudes and knowledge of in-service and pre-service primary school teachers in South Australia about trans and gender diverse students and issues 2. Audit available picture books featuring trans or gender diverse characters 3. Explore the usefulness of picture books which include trans characters for use in primary classrooms by examining students’ understandings 4. Create an online resource with information for supporting trans and gender diverse young people An online survey examining attitudes towards inclusion, comfort, and confidence in relation to trans and gender diverse students was completed by a sample of South Australian primary school teachers (n = 75) and pre-service teachers (n = 105). Findings between the two cohorts were very similar. The findings from both groups overall suggest that women had more positive attitudes and greater comfort in working with trans and gender diverse students, and that those who had previously worked with a trans or gender diverse student and who had undertaken training had more positive attitudes, greater comfort, and greater confidence in working with trans and gender diverse students. An audit of picture books featuring trans or gender diverse characters found that there were 34 such books in existence. Twenty of these books focus on trans characters specifically, while 14 focus on various forms of gender diversity. Of those books currently in existence, only three are Australian. The books provide an array of different storylines and relationships which may be useful for exploring with trans and gender diverse children as well as whole classes of children. However, the books often draw on gender stereotypes, reflecting broader cultural representations and understandings of trans and gender diverse people. Picture books featuring trans characters were explored in book reading sessions with one class of junior primary school students in a government school in South Australia. These books were useful for encouraging discussion and exploration of trans and gender diverse people’s lives. The issues raised in the books were not always clear to the students, although their understandings appeared to grow over the sessions and they were often supportive of the characters. Overall, the salience of hair and clothing in determining gender was central, and many students viewed gender as something fundamental. In some ways the students reiterated the framings of the books in terms of the constructions of binaries (girl/boy) and gender-typed clothing and hair length. Drawing on these three sources of data, the report concludes with recommendations for developing inclusive school cultures, with a focus on making professional development, resources, and support available to educators. The findings from the three studies highlight the need for: 1. The provision of ongoing teacher education, as professional development and within universities 2. Additional resourcing of programs aimed at facilitating inclusion, such as the Safe Schools Coalition 3. DECD-sanctioned policies and guidelines to support teachers and schools to create inclusive whole school cultures 4. Increase in provision of resources to learn about gender diversity, such as picture books in school libraries, and clearer teaching guides for how to use these in class.