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ItemA Cross-Cultural Comparison of Student Concerns in the Teaching Practicum(Shannon Research Press, 1999-12) Murray-Harvey, Rosalind; Silins, Halia; Saebel, JudithThere is general consensus in the literature that students consider the practicum to be a highly valued component of their teacher education degree. Nevertheless, there are wide ranging concerns reported by students related to their teaching practice. This paper reports on these concerns in the form of a cross-cultural comparison of an Australian and a Singaporean sample of students. Singaporean and Australian students completing their first practicum independently responded to a questionnaire based on the Survey of Practicum Stresses (D'Rozario & Wong, 1996). The psychometric properties of their 7-factor model were tested using the Australian data. This resulted in a 4-factor model, which was confirmed using structural equation procedures. Details of effective but under-employed analysis techniques are presented. This model was employed subsequently to provide cross-cultural comparisons of student concerns in the teaching practicum. Significant differences between the stresses experienced by Singaporean and Australian students point to the need to understand student stress within a cultural context. ItemThe Chinese Value Survey : an interpretation of value scales and consideration of some preliminary results.(Shannon Research Press, 2000-07) Matthews, Barbara MarshallThe Chinese Value Survey (CVS) was developed by Bond and his colleagues as a complement to survey instruments constructed by research workers such as Rokeach (1973) and Schwartz (1992). It was designed to be used with people living in geographical regions where Eastern life values are pre-eminent. Preliminary studies have been carried out using this instrument with university students from ethnically Chinese backgrounds studying in three Australian universities. Data were examined using principal components analysis rotated to orthogonal structure. Initial results indicate that of the 40 values measured, 39 neatly form four factors, which are renamed to suit their content. This analysis makes interpretation of the values held by students from an ethnically Chinese background more accessible. [Author abstract] ItemThe Course Experience Questionnaire as an Institutional Performance Indicator(Shannon Research Press, 2000-07) Curtis, David D; Keeves, John PhilipData from the 1996 Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) were analysed using the Rasch measurement model. This analysis indicates that 17 of the 25 CEQ items fit a unitary scale that measures course quality as perceived by graduates. Graduates are located on the interval measurement scale produced in the Rasch analysis. The interval nature of the scale renders the graduates' scores amenable to analyses that are not wisely employed using ordered raw CEQ scores. Analysis of variance indicates that variations in graduates' responses are attributable to field of study and institutional factors. In order to compare universities, corrections are made for the course mix of each institution to produce expected institutional scores. These are compared with observed institutional scores to determine those universities that have performed above, at, or below expectation. (Individual institutions are not identified in this analysis). Important issues relating to the educational and statistical significance of the findings have emerged. The data collected through the CEQ do not represent a simple random sample of all graduates. Instead, the data model is a hierarchical one, with individual graduates nested within courses, which are nested within institutions. This requires analysis using multilevel analytical tools. Conventional analyses substantially underestimate the standard errors of aggregated measures (such as institutional means) and therefore report institutional differences as significant when they are not. The implications of the measurement and analytical problems for policy decisions over the distribution of funding among institutions and among courses within institutions are discussed. ItemResolving binary responses to the Visual Arts Attitude Scale with the Hyperbolic Cosine Model.(Shannon Research Press, 2000-07) Touloumtzoglou, JoannaRecent studies have shown the appropriateness of unfolding models in the analysis of binary disagree-agree responses as opposed to the use of traditional cumulative measurement models. An adaptation of Cohen's (1941) Scale of Attitude towards Aesthetic Value was used for the purpose of attitude measurement toward the visual arts. The study aimed to: (i) examine reliability of the modified scale and consistency of the items; (ii) clarify and facilitate interpretation of results obtained from the Thurstone-type scale; and (iii) improve the quality of attitude measurement. Pupils (n = 131) from two South Australian secondary schools completed two equivalent forms that comprised the Visual Arts Attitude Scale on a single occasion. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the HCM in analysing binary responses and in explaining the disagree responses in terms of their constituent elements. The manifest disagree responses were resolved into two separate latent response curves, which characterised the directions of disagree responses. These were unfolded to correspond to the data, thus providing a description of the effect that is expected as a function of the distances of persons from statements. ItemThe use of problem based learning in theological education(Flinders University, 2000-11-15) Reid, DuncanIn August and September 2000, I was responsible for a new Certificate IV level theology module of six 2-hour sessions, offered by the Adelaide College of Divinity under the name 'The Big Questions'. As the name might suggest, the module allowed participants to engage critically with some of the big questions facing human life, particularly within the context of Christian faith. This paper is intended to offer a critical description of what happened in the module and some suggestions for its revision before being offered again. It will do this in three parts: A. What we did: documentation of the module; B. What we learnt: evaluation of the module in the light of the literature on problem-based learning (PBL); C. Recommendations for changes to the module. ItemErrors: What are they and how significant are they?(Shannon Research Press, 2000-12) Keeves, John PhilipErrors in educational research and measurement arise from four main sources: (1) errors associated with the characteristic being measured or intrinsic errors, (2) errors arising from the instrument being used or instrumental errors, (3) errors involved in the act of measurement or observational errors, and (4) errors arising from the process of sampling or sampling errors. The word 'error' has many meanings. The most common meaning is concerned with the idea of a ' mistake' which does not apply in this context. A further meaning is concerned with 'the difference between an observed or estimated numerical result and the true or exact one'. However, in educational research the 'true value' is both unknown and unknowable and this meaning does not apply. This paper is concerned with the examination of errors in several recent Australian research studies. ItemWhat the boys are saying:An examination of the views of boys about declining rates of achievement and retention(Shannon Research Press, 2000-12) Slade, Malcolm; Trent, Faith HelenThis paper summarises the views of 1800 Year 9 to 11 boys about declining rates of achievement and retention. The boys have been clear and largely uniform in their perspective of the issues and problems, and in their general view that the adult world is 'not listening' and 'not really interested'. They have been equally clear about what needs to be done to effectively deal with their concerns and to provide better, more relevant educational outcomes. In brief, they see themselves to be stuck with an unsuitable, out-of-date and culturally inconsistent learning environment that they cannot change. By the middle of Year 9, their school experience has firmly established a negative and necessary association between formal learning and what they understand as an institutionalised, unpleasant waste of time, dealing with matters having no obvious relevance to their lives and their perceived needs and interests, and demanding the kind of personal sacrifice and general disempowerment that makes the hazy promise of long term rewards simply 'not enough' for most of them. ItemMeasuring moral development: feeling, thinking, and doing(The New Zealand Association for Gifted Children, 2001) Jewell, Paul DamianMoral actions, by their very nature, take place in a community and judgment of them should take into account community expectations. In order to guard against relativism or mere popularity seeking, exemplars of moral behaviour should reflect theories and paradigms found in philosophical ethics. Judgements of moral development should rest upon real actions, rather than expressed feelings or cognitive responses to hypothetical scenarios. ItemThe fallacy of availability(Korean Association for Thinking Development, 2001) Jewell, Paul DamianI propose to identify and describe an example of fallacious reasoning which I call the Fallacy of Availability. References to such a fallacy do not appear in standard lists of fallacies. Once alerted to it, however, critical thinkers will readily think of examples. The fallacious reasoning occurs when a "remedy" for a problem is adopted or proposed on the grounds that the remedy is seen to be available rather than considered to be efficacious. The practice of critically reading argumentative passages with a view to identifying and classifying fallacies has, quite rightly, lost favour in recent years as a core exercise in thinking and critical reasoning courses. In its place the construction (as opposed to deconstruction) of chains of reasoning is preferable. To this end, however, it is useful for advanced thinkers to be aware of effective reasoning techniques and of nferior, ineffective substitutes. The Fallacy of Availability is a case of inferior, ineffective reasoning. ItemLife at school in Australia and Japan: the impact of stress and support on bullying and adaptation to school(Australian Association for Research in Education, 2001) Murray-Harvey, Rosalind; Slee, Phillip T; Saebel, Judith; Taki, MitsuruIn this international, comparative study, path analysis was used to examine eight different aspects of Japanese and Australian students' experiences of school life in relation to their effect on adaptation to school. Adaptation was constructed to include information on enjoyment of school, feelings of belonging to school, and relationships with other students. Two separate path models were tested to compare questionnaire data from over 3000 Australian and 6000 Japanese students across Years 5-10. The questionnaire was developed collaboratively by the authors to examine issues of common concern in both countries. Issues that related to the impact on adaptation to school of stress and support: family teachers, peers and school work, as well as bullying were of particular interest. Lack of support and the influential effect of stress were found to exert direct negative effects on adaptation to school, especially for high school students in Japan and Australia. The path results also confirmed the stressful effects of bullying in both countries. The finding of a strong relationship between bullying others and being victimised is discussed in the paper. Finally, the differences and similarities between Japanese and Australian students' perceptions of school life are extrapolated. ItemLearning through the physical environment in the workplace.(Shannon Research Press, 2001-03) O'Toole, Kathleen Margaret (Paddy)The physical surroundings are often overlooked in discussions on learning in the workplace. The physical environment, however, may hold significant messages for organizational members in relation to what they need to know about the culture, structure and roles and routines of the organization. This paper discusses how differences in the physical environment of two departments in the same organisation influenced the way that people worked and learned. ItemThe development of scales to measure students', teachers' and scientists' views on STS.(Shannon Research Press, 2001-03) Tedman, Debra K; Keeves, John PhilipThe starting point for this work on the development of scales was an existing instrument concerned with Views on Science, Technology and Society (STS) which had been prepared in Canada. This Australian study developed scales to measure views towards science, technology and society, and, it was necessary initially to specify scores to the alternative responses or views for each of the statements included in the scales used in this study. The initial scores or codes for the scales were based upon preliminary analysis and the researcher's judgment derived from a review of the literature. Subsequently, a validation study used the opinions of experts to confirm the numerical codes assigned to the responses. It was also necessary to test the items in each of the scales to see whether the model of a unidimensional scale was consistent with recorded data. It was possible to show that by using the numerical codes, the chosen items fitted well their respective scales. Once the three scales (a) effects of Society on Science and Technology (Society), (b) the effects of Science and Technology upon Society (Science), and (c) characteristics of Scientists (Scientists), had been specified and items were identified that satisfied the requirement of unidimensionality, it was possible to calibrate the three scales and the items within them using the partial credit model for Rasch scaling. The construction and calibration of these three scales permitted an investigation to proceed that involved the accurate measurement of students', teachers' and scientists' views on STS. [ Author abstract] ItemChange in differences between the sexes in mathematics achievement at the lower secondary school level in Australia : over time.(Shannon Research Press, 2001-07) Afrassa, Tilahun M; Keeves, John PhilipIn this paper an investigation is reported on whether changes have occurred in the differences between the sexes in mathematics achievement at the lower secondary school level over the 30 year period from 1964 to 1994. In order to make meaningful comparisons the mathematics test scores from the three studies conducted in Australia under the auspices of the International Association for Evaluation of Educational Achievement were brought to a common interval scale using Rasch measurement procedures. The scale scores are used to examine differences between boys and girls in mathematics achievement on the three occasions as well as the changes that have occurred between occasions. No significant sex differences in mathematics achievement are found on each of the occasions. However, a significant decline in mathematics achievement is recorded for boys between 1964 and 1994, but not for girls. The decline in mathematics achievement over this 30 year period for boys is equivalent to nearly one year of mathematics learning, while the drop for girls is only approximately equivalent to half a year of mathematics learning. [Author abstract] ItemAction learning : a strategy for change.(Shannon Research Press, 2001-07) Silins, HaliaThe National Staff Development Committee of the Vocational Education and Training Sector is promoting action learning as a preferred professional development strategy to support the implementation of key competencies. This paper reports on an investigation of action learning as trialed across five training areas within the Department of Employment, Training and Further Education in South Australia. Two semi-structured hour long interviews were conducted with participating staff, one at the beginning, the other at the end of the project, and two questionnaires were administered: the Stages of Concern Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This paper focuses on the two interviews and these results are discussed in relation to the effectiveness of action learning as a change strategy that can move an organisation for learning toward becoming a learning organisation. [Author abstract] ItemLearning contracts for clinical practice: to promote deep learning strategies(Flinders University, 2001-07) Abbott, PatrickObservation of second year undergraduate students on four week clinical placements reveals an inability of these students to integrate the different topics taught in first and second year into clinical practice. These students appear not to have a deep understanding of the subjects and how they relate to one another. By teaching the students the benefits of deep learning and using learning contracts as a teaching tool, the author hoped to consolidate their knowledge base, increase their confidence in clinical practice and provide a learning tool that they could utilise throughout their nursing career. On completion they were asked to evaluate learning contracts as an adjunct to learning. ItemProviding study skills advice to the math-anxious: developing a model for effective teaching practice(Flinders University, 2001-07) Klinger, Christopher MThis paper is the result of a pilot study to motivate and help structure the development of a model for effective teaching practice when providing academic assistance to math-anxious university students. Students seeking academic skills advice for math-related study problems are identified within two broad categories, one of which contains a sub-category of students who are at most risk of academic failure or withdrawal. A range of issues is considered via a literature review and examination of actual case notes and summary data. A client student profile is identified and the learner/teacher styles and interaction are reported. Finally, "numerosity", numeracy, and the connections between language and math anxiety are briefly discussed. ItemLearning team skills at Law School using problem based learning(Flinders University, 2001-07) Niemann, Grant RobertThis paper identifies a shift in the practice of law to a team-based approach and explores a means whereby this change of emphasis can best be catered for in legal education. The solution proposed is not novel or untested, it simply has not figured prominently in legal education. This may now have to change! ItemA template for designing an effective learning and assessment package for a first-year Engineering topic(Flinders University, 2001-07) Randhawa, SharmilThe aim of this project is to investigate the different modes of assessment, especially those used in engineering education, and to design a package of appropriate and effective assessment schemes within a learning strategy, in order to more effectively teach a first-year engineering topic, namely Circuits and Devices 1A. ItemMixed mode assessment: a preliminary evaluation(Flinders University, 2001-07) Morgan, Douglas LThis paper examines the usefulness of a combination of self, peer and tutor (mixed mode) assessment of group presentations for promoting deep learning and enhancing the learning experience of students undertaking the first year topic Aust 1004 - An Introduction to Aboriginal Studies, part of the Indigenous minor at Flinders University. It discusses the relative advantages and disadvantages of the three assessment processes and argues that a combination of all three can create an environment to promote deep learning. It evaluates the experiences of 25 first year students using this process and finds that deep learning is enhanced by mixed mode assessment.