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Browsing College of Medicine and Public Health by Author "Abbott, Catherine Anne"
(Hindawi, 2015-05-13) Yazbeck, Roger; Lindsay, Ruth; Abbott, Catherine Anne; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Howarth, Gordon S
Chemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5FU), are the standard approach for cancer and are associated with several peripheral toxicities. We previously demonstrated that Muricidae marine molluscs exhibit chemopreventive properties. This study investigated the combined effect of muricid extract derived from Dicathais orbita, with 5FU, on intestinal toxicity in rats. Groups of rats were orally gavaged water, muricid extract, or sunflower oil, with or without 5FU (150 mg/kg). Metabolic data was collected daily and small intestinal brush border enzyme activity was measured by sucrose breath test (SBT). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for whole blood analysis. Intestinal biopsies were taken for histopathology. Neutrophil activity was measured by myeloperoxidase activity. No additional toxicity effects were observed in rats receiving the combination of 5FU and muricid extract compared to 5FU alone, as indicated by SBT, histopathology, and myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal integrity was protected from 5FU-induced damage in the sunflower oil vehicle group, compared to controls, as measured by SBT, villus height, and crypt depth. We concluded that combination of muricid extract and 5FU did not confer any additional intestinal toxicity, further supporting its potential as a chemopreventive food product. In this model system, sunflower oil partially protected against 5FU-induced intestinal toxicity.
(Sage, 2017-04-05) Esmaeelian, Babak; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Le Leu, Richard Kevin; Abbott, Catherine Anne
The acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogens animal model has been extensively used to assess the ability of drugs and natural products like dietary components to promote apoptosis in the colon and protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). This work aimed to use this model to identify the main chemopreventative agent in extracts from an Australian mollusc Dicathais orbita, while simultaneously providing information on their potential in vivo toxicity. After 2 weeks of daily oral gavage with bioactive extracts and purified brominated indoles, mice were injected with the chemical carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg) and then killed 6 hours later. Efficacy was evaluated using immunohistochemical and hematoxylin staining, and toxicity was assessed via hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histopathology. Comparison of saline- and AOM-injected controls revealed that potential toxic side effects can be interpreted from blood biochemistry and hematology using this short-term model, although AOM negatively affected the ability to detect histopathological effects in the liver. Purified 6-bromoisatin was identified as the main cancer preventive agent in the Muricidae extract, significantly enhancing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation in the colonic crypts at 0.05 mg/g. There was no evidence of liver toxicity associated with 6-bromoisatin, whereas 0.1 mg/g of the brominated indole tyrindoleninone led to elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels and a reduction in red blood cells. As tyrindoleninone is converted to 6-bromoisatin by oxidation, this information will assist in the optimization and quality control of a chemopreventative nutraceutical from Muricidae. In conclusion, preliminary data on in vivo safety can be simultaneously collected when testing the efficacy of new natural products, such as 6-bromoisatin from Muricidae molluscs for early stage prevention of colon cancer.