Browsing Public Health by Author "Anaf, Julia Margaret"
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ItemAssessing the health impact of transnational corporations: its importance and a framework(BioMed Central, 2016) Baum, Fran; Sanders, David; Fisher, Matthew; Anaf, Julia Margaret; Freudenberg, N; Friel, S; Labonte, Ronald; London, L; Monteiro, C; Scott-Samuel, A; Sen, ABackground: The adverse health and equity impacts of transnational corporations’ (TNCs) practices have become central public health concerns as TNCs increasingly dominate global trade and investment and shape national economies. Despite this, methodologies have been lacking with which to study the health equity impacts of individual corporations and thus to inform actions to mitigate or reverse negative and increase positive impacts. Methods: This paper reports on a framework designed to conduct corporate health impact assessment (CHIA), developed at a meeting held at the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in May 2015. Results: On the basis of the deliberations at the meeting it was recommended that the CHIA should be based on ex post assessment and follow the standard HIA steps of screening, scoping, identification, assessment, decision-making and recommendations. A framework to conduct the CHIA was developed and designed to be applied to a TNC’s practices internationally, and within countries to enable comparison of practices and health impacts in different settings. The meeting participants proposed that impacts should be assessed according to the TNC’s global and national operating context; its organisational structure, political and business practices (including the type, distribution and marketing of its products); and workforce and working conditions, social factors, the environment, consumption patterns, and economic conditions within countries. Conclusion: We anticipate that the results of the CHIA will be used by civil society for capacity building and advocacy purposes, by governments to inform regulatory decision-making, and by TNCs to lessen their negative health impacts on health and fulfil commitments made to corporate social responsibility. ItemFactors shaping intersectoral action in primary health care services(Wiley, 2014-11-06) Anaf, Julia Margaret; Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Labonte, Ronald; Javanparast, Sara; Jolley, Gwyneth Margaret; Lawless, Angela Patricia; Bentley, Michael WilliamObjective: To examine case studies of good practice in intersectoral action for health as one part of evaluating comprehensive primary health care in six sites in South Australia and the Northern Territory. Methods: Interviews with primary health care workers, collaborating agency staff, and service users (Total N=33); augmented by relevant documents from the services and collaborating partners. Results: The value of intersectoral action for health and the importance of partner relationships to primary health care services were both strongly endorsed. Factors facilitating intersectoral action included sufficient human and financial resources, diverse backgrounds and skills, and the personal rewards that sustain commitment. Key constraining factors were financial and time limitations and a political and policy context which has become less supportive of intersectoral action; including changes to primary health care. Conclusions: While intersectoral action is an effective way for primary health care services to address social determinants of health, commitment to social justice and to adopting a social view of health are constrained by a broader health service now largely reinforcing a biomedical model. Implications: Effective organisational practices and policies are needed to address social determinants of health in primary health care and to provide a supportive context for workers engaging in intersectoral action.