Browsing Flinders Research Publications by Author "Abbott, Catherine Anne"
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Item11th Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2003 (ISMB2003)(Hindawi, 2003-09) Abbott, Catherine AnneThis report profiles the keynote talks given at ISMB03 in Brisbane, Australia by Ron Shamir, David Haussler, John Mattick, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Sydney Brenner, theOverton Prize winner, Jim Kent, and the ISCB Senior Accomplishment Awardee,David Sankov. ItemAnalysis of the Anti-Cancer Effects of Cincau Extract (Premna oblongifolia Merr) and Other Types of Non-Digestible Fibre Using Faecal Fermentation Supernatants and Caco-2 Cells as a Model of the Human Colon(MDPI, 2017-04-03) Nurdin, Samsu U; Le Leu, Richard Kevin; Young, Graeme Paul; Stangoulis, James Constantine Roy; Christophersen, Claus; Abbott, Catherine AnneGreen cincau (Premna oblongifolia Merr) is an Indonesian food plant with a high dietary fibre content. Research has shown that dietary fibre mixtures may be more beneficial for colorectal cancer prevention than a single dietary fibre type. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green cincau extract on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human faecal slurries and to compare these to results obtained using different dietary fibre types (pectin, inulin, and cellulose), singly and in combination. Furthermore, fermentation supernatants (FSs) were evaluated in Caco-2 cells for their effect on cell viability, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cincau increased total SCFA concentration by increasing acetate and propionate, but not butyrate concentration. FSs from all dietary fibre sources, including cincau, reduced Caco-2 cell viability. However, the effects of all FSs on cell viability, cell differentiation, and apoptosis were not simply explainable by their butyrate content. In conclusion, products of fermentation of cincau extracts induced cell death, but further work is required to understand the mechanism of action. This study demonstrates for the first time that this Indonesian traditional source of dietary fibre may be protective against colorectal cancer. View Full-Text ItemBioactivity of the Murex Homeopathic Remedy and of Extracts from an Australian Muricid Mollusc against Human Cancer Cells(Hindawi, 2010-10-20) Benkendorff, Kirsten; McIver, Cassandra; Abbott, Catherine AnneMarine molluscs from the family Muricidae are the source of a homeopathic remedy Murex, which is used to treat a range of conditions, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of egg mass extracts of the Australian muricid Dicathais orbita, in comparison to the Murex remedy, against human carcinoma and lymphoma cells. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to characterize the chemical composition of the extracts and homeopathic remedy, focusing on biologically active brominated indoles. The MTS (tetrazolium salt) colorimetric assay was used to determine effects on cell viability, while necrosis and apoptosis induction were investigated using flow cytometry (propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining, resp.). Cells were treated with varying concentrations (1–0.01 mg/mL) of crude and semi-purified extracts or preparations (dilute 1 M and concentrated 4 mg/mL) from the Murex remedy (4 h). The Murex remedy showed little biological activity against the majority of cell lines tested. In contrast, the D. orbita egg extracts significantly decreased cell viability in the majority of carcinoma cell lines. Flow cytometry revealed these extracts induce necrosis in HT29 colorectal cancer cells, whereas apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells. These findings highlight the biomedical potential of Muricidae extracts in the development of a natural therapy for the treatment of neoplastic tumors and lymphomas. ItemCombined Effects of Muricid Extract and 5-Fluorouracil on Intestinal Toxicity in Rats(Hindawi, 2015-05-13) Yazbeck, Roger; Lindsay, Ruth; Abbott, Catherine Anne; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Howarth, Gordon SChemotherapy drugs, such as 5-fluorouracil (5FU), are the standard approach for cancer and are associated with several peripheral toxicities. We previously demonstrated that Muricidae marine molluscs exhibit chemopreventive properties. This study investigated the combined effect of muricid extract derived from Dicathais orbita, with 5FU, on intestinal toxicity in rats. Groups of rats were orally gavaged water, muricid extract, or sunflower oil, with or without 5FU (150 mg/kg). Metabolic data was collected daily and small intestinal brush border enzyme activity was measured by sucrose breath test (SBT). Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for whole blood analysis. Intestinal biopsies were taken for histopathology. Neutrophil activity was measured by myeloperoxidase activity. No additional toxicity effects were observed in rats receiving the combination of 5FU and muricid extract compared to 5FU alone, as indicated by SBT, histopathology, and myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal integrity was protected from 5FU-induced damage in the sunflower oil vehicle group, compared to controls, as measured by SBT, villus height, and crypt depth. We concluded that combination of muricid extract and 5FU did not confer any additional intestinal toxicity, further supporting its potential as a chemopreventive food product. In this model system, sunflower oil partially protected against 5FU-induced intestinal toxicity. ItemCytokines regulate complement receptor immunoglobulin expression and phagocytosis of Candida albicans in human macrophages: A control point in anti-microbial immunity(Nature Publishing Group, 2017-06-22) Munawara, Usma; Small, Annabelle Grace; Quach, Alex; Gorgani, Nick N; Abbott, Catherine Anne; Ferrante, AntonioComplement Receptor Immunoglobulin (CRIg), selectively expressed by macrophages, plays an important role in innate immunity by promoting phagocytosis of bacteria. Thus modulation of CRIg on macrophages by cytokines can be an important mechanism by which cytokines regulate anti-microbial immunity. The effects of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor-β1, interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, lymphotoxin-α, macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and GM-CSF on CRIg expression were examined in human macrophages. We demonstrated that cytokines regulated the CRIg expression on macrophages during their development from monocytes in culture at the transcriptional level using qPCR and protein by Western blotting. Both CRIg spliced forms (Long and Short), were similarly regulated by cytokines. Direct addition of cytokines to matured CRIg+ macrophages also changed CRIg mRNA expression, suggesting that cytokines control macrophage function via CRIg, at two checkpoints. Interestingly the classical complement receptors, CR3 and CR4 were differentially regulated by cytokines. The changes in CRIg but not CR3/CR4 mRNA expression correlated with ability to phagocytose Candida albicans by macrophages. These findings suggest that CRIg is likely to be a control point in infection and immunity through which cytokines can mediate their effects, and is differentially regulated from CR3 and CR4 by cytokines. ItemDipeptidyl Peptidase 10 (DPP10789): A Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Associated Protein Is Abnormally Expressed in Alzheimer’s and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases(Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014) Chen, Tong; Gai, Wei Ping; Abbott, Catherine AnneThe neuropathological features associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-𝛽 peptidecontaining plaques and intracellular tau positive neurofibrillary tangles and the loss of synapses and neurons in defined regions of the brain. Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10) is a protein that facilitates Kv4 channel surface expression and neuronal excitability. This study aims to explore DPP10789 protein distribution in human brains and its contribution to the neurofibrillary pathology of AD and other tauopathies. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominant neuronal staining of DPP10789 in control brains, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus contained strong reactivity in the distal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. In AD brains, robust DPP10789 reactivity was detected in neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites, most of which colocalized with the doubly phosphorylated Ser-202/Thr-205 tau epitope. DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites also appeared in other neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, diffuse Lewy body disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Occasional DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and neurites were seen in some aged control brains.Western blot analysis showed both full length and truncatedDPP10789 fragments with the later increasing significantly in AD brains compared to control brains. Our results suggest that DPP10789 is involved in the pathology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. ItemGastrointestinal and Hepatotoxicity Assessment of an Anticancer Extract from Muricid Molluscs(Hindawi, 2013-04-17) Westley, Chantel Barbara; Benkendorff, Kirsten; McIver, Cassandra; Le Leu, Richard Kevin; Abbott, Catherine AnneMarine molluscs from the family Muricidae are under development as a potential medicinal food for the prevention of colon cancer and treatment of gynaecological cancers. Here we report the outcome of the first in vivo toxicity assessment on an anticancer extract from a muricid mollusc containing brominated indole derivatives. Mice received the concentrated lipophilic extract by daily oral gavage over a two-week period. Mortality or clinical toxicity symptoms resulting from the extract were not detected during the trial, and there was no difference in the body weight of treated and control mice at the end of the trial. Histological analysis revealed some evidence for mild, idiosyncratic effects on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, including necrosis, fatty change, and inflammation in a small proportion (ud_less_than40%) of mice. This is likely to result from first-pass hepatic metabolism of tyrindoxyl sulphate combined with second-pass metabolism of indoles. Overall however, oral administration of muricid extract containing brominated indoles does not result in severe clinical toxicity. ItemSimultaneous Assessment of the Efficacy and Toxicity of Marine Mollusc–Derived Brominated Indoles in an In Vivo Model for Early Stage Colon Cancer(Sage, 2017-04-05) Esmaeelian, Babak; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Le Leu, Richard Kevin; Abbott, Catherine AnneThe acute apoptotic response to genotoxic carcinogens animal model has been extensively used to assess the ability of drugs and natural products like dietary components to promote apoptosis in the colon and protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). This work aimed to use this model to identify the main chemopreventative agent in extracts from an Australian mollusc Dicathais orbita, while simultaneously providing information on their potential in vivo toxicity. After 2 weeks of daily oral gavage with bioactive extracts and purified brominated indoles, mice were injected with the chemical carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM; 10 mg/kg) and then killed 6 hours later. Efficacy was evaluated using immunohistochemical and hematoxylin staining, and toxicity was assessed via hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histopathology. Comparison of saline- and AOM-injected controls revealed that potential toxic side effects can be interpreted from blood biochemistry and hematology using this short-term model, although AOM negatively affected the ability to detect histopathological effects in the liver. Purified 6-bromoisatin was identified as the main cancer preventive agent in the Muricidae extract, significantly enhancing apoptosis and reducing cell proliferation in the colonic crypts at 0.05 mg/g. There was no evidence of liver toxicity associated with 6-bromoisatin, whereas 0.1 mg/g of the brominated indole tyrindoleninone led to elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels and a reduction in red blood cells. As tyrindoleninone is converted to 6-bromoisatin by oxidation, this information will assist in the optimization and quality control of a chemopreventative nutraceutical from Muricidae. In conclusion, preliminary data on in vivo safety can be simultaneously collected when testing the efficacy of new natural products, such as 6-bromoisatin from Muricidae molluscs for early stage prevention of colon cancer.