Identifying food group targets to improve the diet quality of individuals

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Haddad, Joyce
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Flinders University
Copyright © 2018 the author. All rights reserved.
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The author
Aim/Objective To distinguish how diet quality components vary between individual cases, and sub-groups of personal characteristics. Introduction/Background Literature Diet is a key modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Interventions have commonly focused on the same food groups to improve health outcomes, with little effectiveness. Tailoring dietary interventions to personal characteristics may be more beneficial. Methodology Cross-sectional, data-driven analysis with a priori knowledge of self-reported food intake data was conducted. Methods/Design – includes setting, sampling, ethical review, data collection and data analysis Diet quality data was analysed from 198,637 Australian adults, collected using a validated online short food survey. Overall and individual component scores were compared between individual cases and sub-groups (diet quality quintiles, age, gender, weight or a mixture) using percentage agreement and Cohen’s kappa. Findings/Results Of the nine diet quality components, four key components were frequently shown as the lowest scoring at both the individual and sub-groups levels: Variety, Dairy, Discretionary, Healthy fats. The percentage agreement and kappa coefficients only improved marginally as sub-group levels became more personalised, when compared to individual cases. Dairy and healthy fats fell in the bottom four scores 66% and 58% of the time for all groups, respectively. Discretionary fell in the bottom four scores for all sub-groups 68% of the time (k=0.16, p<0.01) and variety frequency agreement also remained unchanged (k=0.35, p<0.01). The same four lowest scoring components occurred ~60% of the time for all groups. Conclusion/Summary Using personal characteristics may be an effective way to personalise interventions, however complexity of personalisation may not be needed beyond demographic characteristics. Implications/recommendations for Practice To consider in which order the frequently occurring lowest scoring food groups should be targeted.
This abstract was prepared for the inaugural 'HDR Student Conference', Flinders University, November 2018. Copyright © the author
Diet quality, Dietary guidelines, Personalised nutrition, Food groups, Dietary patterns
Haddad, Joyce (2018, November) Identifying food group targets to improve the diet quality of individuals Paper presented at 'HDR Student conference', Flinders University, Bedford Park.