Proceedings of the 9th Biennial International Conference of Greek Studies, 2011

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The papers in this volume discuss many issues in Greek studies. The papers deal with ancient Greek and Byzantine philosophy, philology, the history of Greece and the Greek world, the history of the Greek Diaspora, and the teaching of the Greek language. They cover a considerable span of time and space, crossing the boundaries of various fields of research. The papers on the ancient world range from discussions of Athenian pagan philosophy in the fifth century BCE to Christian criticisms of pagan thought in Egyptian Alexandria in the sixth century CE. The papers on the medieval and Modern Greek world range from discussions of Byzantine Orthodoxy to debates about the significance of Greek textiles in twenty first century Australia. The papers display the diachronic and multidimensional relevance of Greek studies in the current world. All of the papers were submitted to independent referees. Those that passed the scrutiny of the referees were revised in the light of their comments. Sincere thanks are extended to our referees who have provided considerable support in their field of expertise in order to make this publication scholarly and academically sound and useful for the future. Our gratitude is also extended to Maria Sakellaridis who has formatted the texts and organised the publication in a creative and impeccable manner.


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    Κατάρτιση λημματολογίου ενός διαλεκτικού λεξικού: η βάση δεδομένων Συντυσ ˇ ιές
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Katsoyannou, Marianne; Armosti, Spyros; Christodoulou, Kyriaki
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Compiling a dialectal dictionary: the “Syntychies” lexical database: This paper introduces the reader to the issues of making an online dialectal dictionary, presenting some of the matters that have arisen while producing a lexical database of the Cypriot Greek dialect. Most problems related to the selection of data and compilation of lemmas were caused by the great variation in orthographic and/or morphological representation of Cypriot word forms. The database which has been created as part of the “Syntychies” research program is available on the website The choices that have been adopted in this database after a lexical analysis of a large amount of data outline a framework for compiling other dialectical dictionaries of Greek.
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    Η κινηματογραφική ταινία στο μάθημα της λογοτεχνίας στην ελληνική εκπαίδευση
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Giotopoulou, Katerina
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Cinema as a text in teaching literature in Greek school: Cinema is a universal language which affects on people and especially students and shapes their perception of the world. Thus in many countries critical understanding of film and television program is considered as an integral part of literacy. Film literacy is included in school curriculum and the commonalities between literature and audiovisual storytelling have been recognized. The audiovisual education, media literacy and film education are goals of the school, either they occur in classes independently or they penetrate other subjects such as language, literature, history, etc. Nevertheless in Greek school the cinema and audiovisual education was absent from the school curriculum. This paper examines the position of the film education in secondary schools in Greece and explores the introduction of film as a text included in the curriculum of the subject of literature.
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    Τα παντοπωλεία του Πύργου Σαντορίνης κατά τον 20ό και 21ο αιώνα. Λειτουργία και μετασχηματισμός
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Chryssou-Karatza, Kyriaki
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Operation and transformation of grocery stores in the town of Pyrgos – Santorini during the 20th and 21st century: It is quite easy to demarcate the theme of this essay. The grocery store is a distinct geographical point: a meeting place of mainly female inhabitants, it is often situated in a community’s public spaces, such as the square and the main commercial centre, and it has various functions both economic and cultural. The grocery stores situated in the town of Pyrgos on the island of Santorini reflect the fluctuating economic correlations of recent historical times.
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    Εθνική ιδεολογία και αλληγορία: παράσταση της Ελλάδας από τους αδελφούς Φυτάλη
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Mavromichali, Effie
    Please note: This article is in Greek. The allegorical representation of Greece in the 19th century: The case of the sculptor brothers Fytali: This article presents, for the first time, an unknown work by the sculptor brothers, Georgios and Lazarus Fytali, titled Greece in Concord (Hellas Omonooussa). The statue itself is missing and it is only shown in a photograph. It represents the goddess Athena as an allegory of Greece, with a large cross on her chest. In her right hand she holds a flag with a cross at the top of the flagpole and in her left hand, which is extended outwards, winged victory bearing a scroll. Having the sculpture as a starting point, the allegorical representation of Greece will be examined — beginning from the 18th but with an emphasis on the 19th century, as well as the new facets of the national ideology which this statue projects. It will be also proved that the concept of its composition belongs to the architect Lysandros Kaftantzoglou and that the sculptor brothers Fytali simply executed this idea in marble.
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    Διονύσιος Σολωμός και Pierre Hyacinthe Azais
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Charalambous, Panayiota
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Dionysios Solomos and Pierre Hyacinthe Azais: Pierre Hyacinthe Azais, a French philosopher and musician who lived in 1766–1845, was one of the philosophers the work of whom had been studied by the Greek poet Dionysios Solomos. His fundamental principles regarding the universal equilibrium, the compensation theory which balances human happiness, the unity of the universe and its relation to the human soul, are developed in his two main works Des compensations dans les destinées humaines (1808) and Explication Universelle (1809–1812), whereas his acoustic theory is imprinted in his articles titled “Acoustique fondamentale”, which were published in Revue Musicale (1831–1832). In our paper we will discuss some of the references of the name and the philosophical theory of Azais in Solomos’ Αυτόγραφα. The theoretical discussion will be based on specific examples from Solomos’ poetical practice, where the fruitful way in which the Greek poet assimilated the theoretical work of the French philosopher, can be detected.
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    Πρωτόγονη ευαισθησία και νεωτερική διάνοια στο Βίος και πολιτεία του Αλέξη Ζορμπά του Νίκου Καζαντζάκη
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Vogiatzaki, Evi
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Primitive sensibility and modernist mentality in N. Kazantzakis’ Zorba the Greek: This paper explores the recreation of mythic or primitive sensitivity and the dissociation of rational thought and subjective feeling in the dialogical novel of Nikos Kazantzakis, Alexis Zorbas. It contends that the novel dramatizes the contrast between mythic sensibility and mental civilized self-reflection, revealing not only aspects of the modernist understanding of subjectivity but also the kind of imaginative creation which the narrative enacts reflecting the poetics of the twentieth-century primitivism. Mythic sensibility manifests itself as a form of otherness which motivates the subject’s nostalgic and tedious journey of return to archaic origins relating to the collective unconscious of the race. Drawing upon Michael Bell’s study on Primitivism and the inferences of anthropological studies in the beginning of the 20th century, it explores animism, natural or cosmic piety and rituals as the most pervasive manifestations of primitive sensibility which are opposed to the civilized mentality of the novel. Alexis Zorbas’ life and ideas substantiate the primitive urge of the novel which challenges the modern skepticism of the character-author, thus evoking the ancient response to life which occupies the kernel of the novel. Accordingly it concludes that Kazantzakis’ novel is constructed as great allegory about the destiny of the civilized man of the twentieth century. Reflecting on and longing for the unsearchable and grandiose moments in the history of human civilization, the author is in quest of a spiritual and philosophical recreation of the human consciousness whereby soul and body, spirit and matter would reconcile recovering their lost unity.
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    Βυζαντινός Κόσμος και Εννοιολογική Ιστορία
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Arabatzis, Giorgos
    Please note: This article is in Greek. The Byzantine World and Conceptual History: The article examines the idea of the Byzantine world through the methodologies of conceptual history and socio-history. A criticism of the positivist stand and its scientific segmentation offers the starting point and the analytical tools provided by the postmodern literature are briefly overviewed. The concept of the Byzantine Ego appears to be central in the related research because it permits to empathize with this Ego’s life-world. The notions of “power”, “meta-narration”, “normativity”, “post-structuralism”, “modernism” and others are central for this study if we wish to escape the narrowing positivist imperative and approach the Byzantine world with a fresh look. The cultural logic of the Byzantine world is seen through a processual approach that combines the ideas of critique, structure and, to some degree, postcolonialism with the purpose to understand alternatively the cultural entities that populated the Byzantine sphere.
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    Διαφώτιση, Προπαγάνδα και Αντί-Προπαγάνδα στην Κύπρο, 1955–1959
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Alexandrou, Charalambos
    Please note: This article is in Greek. Enlightenment, Propaganda and Counter-Propaganda in Cyprus, 1955–1959: Many parts of the insurgency in Cyprus of the period 1955–1959, while consists a multilevel struggle, remain unknown. One of them is the bloodless war of propaganda which was waging years before 1955 but it was systematised and intensified during the Cyprus insurgency inside the island. The first aim of the study is to reveal the way Greeks and British conducted propaganda in Cyprus and the means by which propaganda and counter-propaganda were exercised during the period. Moreover, we will try to detect the inter-relation between the senders of the messages and the receivers. In this frame we will moreover try to answer the question which was the targeted group each time, the techniques used by each side, the significance of the phraseology and generally the expediencies which were served through propaganda and the various information techniques.
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    The Crone role revisited in the migrant diaspora to Australia
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Frantzi, Kyriaki
    In mythical tradition as revisited by research during the few last decades, the Crone is the feminine aspect of the ageing individual, she who protects and guides youngsters through her wisdom. Drawing on the darker as well as the more glowing sides of this powerful image, the paper investigates how migrant women in old age are conceptualised by younger Australians of a Mediterranean background. Qualitative data such as recent performance materials, student publications and autobiographical essays point to a shift in perceptions which, beyond challenging stereotypical representations of old females as custodians of tradition, highlight a need to apply new tools to investigating scholarly themes in situations where subjects originate from societies of illiteracy and orality.
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    The Greek language of the diaspora in the era of globalisation
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Michopoulos, Aristotle
    This paper is divided into two parts. The first one deals with the Greek language and education in the United States, focusing on schools, books, teachers and the educational policy of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese and the Greek Government regarding this subject. For comparative purposes a brief portion of this section deals with the teaching of the Greek language and culture in Canada, Australia, Germany, and other countries. The second part focuses on the global aspects of the Greek language. It discusses the effects of the fall of Communism and the full membership of Greece in the EU and how these factors affected the Greek language and Government policy, regarding the funding of Greek Education globally. Finally, the paper offers some recommendations for maximising the benefits arising from this new world of globalisation.
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    Greek Orthodox iconography from a historical and cultural perspective
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Doupis, Ekaterini
    This paper will examine the historical events that made an impact on Greek Orthodox Iconography including the Iconoclastic period, and its acceptance into the Greek Orthodox community during the Byzantine period. As well as looking at the dogmatic meaning of the “icon” in the Greek Orthodox community, I will evaluate through the interview results collected from the youth, elderly and priests of the Greek Orthodox community of South Australia whether the initial dogmatic purpose of the “icon” is understood and upheld by the community of today.
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    Recreation of the Rhodian village of Lahania in Thebarton, South Australia, in the early 1950s. Part Three
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Hedrick, Claude
    After World War Two ended in Lahania in 1946, villagers formed an almost continuous stream to Australia until 1967. A smaller number of thirty-six went to America by 1956. The Australian contingent 117 of the 128 went straight to Thebarton, in Adelaide. This massive exodus eased living conditions for some of those left behind. Markets opened outside the village by 1955 to sell crops. By 1958 fertilisers were available, which increased yields by 400% in the first year, but within four years the yields dropped back to the original amount. The Greek Government donated a tractor to the village in 1960 (still there in 1978). In Australia, many of the men had to travel extensively and work under extreme circumstances to support their families. Thebarton, however, had many qualities which suited the new arrivals. One of these qualities was that they were able to participate in the community in a way that closely emulated conditions in Lahania.
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    Between young and old Greek Orthodox Christians: saint worship and dance as offering to a saint
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Riak, Patricia
    The paper reconstructs what is remembered about saint worship practiced in the Rhodian highland village of Istrios. Istrian memory reveals a religious practice that included dance as a form of promise (taximo) and offering (tama) to Saint Merkourios, particularly by Istrian mothers and their role in assisting to cure their children of illness. The paper introduces the presence of dancing as a form of promise and offering to worship a saint, describing in detail how Istrian mothers performed the dance in a Holy shrine atypically located in a cemetery chapel.
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    The pear tree. A study of Greek-Australian families 50 years after migration
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Cleland, Andrea
    The nation’s story of the migration of Greeks to Australia is immensely rich, but the everyday voices of migrant families are largely missing. Through the use of personal stories and case studies of families who originated from the region of Florina in Greece, my research examines the impacts of migration on Greek transnational families and how conflicting ideas of home and identity are mediated and transitioned over three generations. Central to my research is the idea that family is at the core of Greek life, and during the 1950s–1970s, when Australia experienced an immense wave of post-war migration from Greece, the tapestry of Greek family units and traditional way of life was profoundly changed. This paper forms part of a wider oral history research project examining intergenerational changes within Greek-Australian migrant families from the region of Florina, and how families narrate and mediate the complexities of identity.
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    Auto/biographical writing and Greek-Australian historiography
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Nicolacopoulos, Toula; Vassilacopoulos, George
    This paper outlines a methodology for 'auto/biographical' life-history writing and argues for its merits based on a particular case study. In the present context 'auto/ biographical life writing' refers to life writing that is produced collaboratively by the participants, the researchers and research subjects, who are respectively positioned as writers/editors and narrators. We will propose an account of the dialogical structure that informs this inter-subjective interaction as developed in our collaboration with one Greek-Australian political activist. In our collaboration with George Gotsis on his auto/biography we have been taking what we call an ontological approach, in the sense of addressing the conditions of being in a collaborative researcher–researched relationship. We present the main features of this approach and discuss its merits and connection with our Greek-Australian historiography more broadly.
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    Blending Greek with Aboriginal Australian cultural elements in artistic expression
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Kanarakis, George
    This paper pursues another transnational course extending the paper I presented at the Eighth International Conference on Greek Research, where the influence of cultural aspects of Aboriginal Australians upon a variety of first generation Greek Australians’ artistic expression was examined. Exploring both direct and indirect influence of elements of Greek and Aboriginal Australian cultures evident in artistic works (including theatre arts, painting, photography, music and dance), my current research focuses on how this blending has transcended through the filter of second generation Australians of Greek and Koori parentage, as well as of Aborigines, Anglo-Australians and members of other immigrant groups, and how this has been transformed and exhibited by them, thus being “recreated” artistically.
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    Faces beyond the Greek café: the traditional diversity of Greek-Australian occupational pursuits, 1820s–2010
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Janiszewski, Leonard; Alexakis, Effy
    From the late nineteenth century until the closing decades of the twentieth century, Greeks played a large part in Australia’s food catering industry. They continued, nevertheless, to enter a wide variety of occupations. These included: agricultural and pastoral activities, mining, sea-related industries, itinerant work, secondary industries, public life, professional fields, and artistic and sporting avenues. Moreover, their contribution in some activities proved significant. This paper firmly challenges the entrenched, popular stereotype of Greek-Australians as being historically defined as essentially a collection of fish’n’chip shop owners and café and milk bar proprietors. Rather, their complex and broad involvement in Australia’s mainstream development over the last two hundred years is clearly revealed, acknowledged and celebrated.
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    The distinction between laiko and logio as a particular characteristic of the Modern Greek language: historical interpretation, contemporary function and didactic usage
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Paradia, Maria; Mitsis, Napoleon
    It is well known that the Greek language, despite its long history and the various adventures it has experienced over the centuries and in contrast with other ancient European languages (e.g. Latin), has not undergone any radical changes with the passage of time. Instead, it has maintained a noteworthy diachronic homogeneity and a unified character that have made it intriguing for scholars and, at the same time, give it a unique nature. The functional presence of a large number of diachronic elements within contemporary Modern Greek undoubtedly make it a unique case. They have not, however, been sufficiently researched, and this paper aims to make a contribution in this direction.
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    Art censorship as art criticism: fighting the sacrilegious and protecting the 'shell'
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Karaiskou, Vayia-Vicky
    Art censorship in Greece since the establishment of the new Greek state in 1830 has been formulated in relation to the ideological patterns of national identity. The influence of Romanticism intensified references to ancient ancestors, legitimised the focus on tradition, and corresponded to the need of the newly formed Greek society to establish the country’s position as a cultural equal of the other European countries. Ever since, the constant calling of Greek society upon the symbols of national identity have created rigid ideological barriers in the country. The fine arts were expected to express higher values; sculpture in particular, owing to its public and monumental character, was connected to the concept of “nation” and assumed the role of helping to visualise its constituent elements. On the part of the audience, art critics included, censorship took the form of art criticism. Sculptors, on the other hand, had to self-censor their work by adapting themselves to the requirements of their environment. Modernity became an obvious target of animosity during the 20th century. The imminent danger supposedly posed involved contaminating the authenticity of “Greekness”. During the seven-year dictatorship (1967–1974) modernity was for the first time understood as protecting — instead of violating — the essence of national identity, because of its connection to political art revolting against the regime. During the past three decades, despite the radical changes the country has undergone, a peculiar kind of self-censorship exercised by the state — on the occasion of prominent official and public cultural events — has proved the use of culture as leverage for broader political views and resulted in an ongoing introversion.
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    Never to return: migration and old age in Venezis’s “The State of Virginia”
    (Flinders University Department of Language Studies - Modern Greek, 2013-06) Dova, Stamatia
    This paper discusses Ilias Venezis’s short story “The State of Virginia” with special emphasis on the themes of migration and old age. Published in 1954, in the aftermath of WWII and the Greek Civil War, “The State of Virginia” captures the drama of an elderly woman victim of the Asia Minor Catastrophe, as she is migrating to Virginia, U.S.A. after thirty years of temporary residence in a refugee village in rural Attica. My analysis focuses on the protagonist’s reluctant migration as it emerges from the farewell scene between her and her life-long friend; their conversation on the irreversibility of their separation, the challenges facing elderly migrants, and the significance of native soil voices an insightful discourse on belonging and rootedness that transcends many socio-temporal limits.