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    Using knowledge management in building a culture of research: a case study of an Australian academic library
    (De Gruyter Saur / IFLA, 2015-12) Walkley Hall, Elizabeth
    Knowledge management (KM) has been much discussed in the library and informationscience literature, from papers describing its potential for the profession (Broadbent, 1997;Butler, 2000; Nelson, 2008; Sarrafzadeh, Martin and Hazeri, 2010; Townley, 2001) to casestudies of uptake and impact (Branin, 2003; Jain, 2013; Jantz, 2001; Islam et al., 2015;Porumbeanu, 2010). Similarly, there are many representations in the literature of librariesestablishing support groups for librarians undertaking research, especially in academiclibraries (Blessinger, et al., 2010; Cirasella and Smale, 2011; Fallon, 2012; Gratch, 1989;Lee, 1995; Sapon-White, King, and Christie, 2004). However, there are few who haveexplored the intersection of knowledge management with creating a culture of research andlearning in libraries (Madge, 2012; Sheng and Sun, 2007). This paper seeks to add to thisliterature in describing a case study at an Australian academic library. Flinders University Library has, over the past four years, been actively building a culture of research among its professional staff, in order to equip them with the skills and expertise necessary in an era of continuous change for libraries. It has done so through the implementation of a support group for professional staff to undertake research projects, known as the Research Working Group (RWG). Its brief is to ‘develop a culture of research and professional reflection amongst the library’s professional staff’. While it is focused on the creation of knowledge in undertaking research, there are other important components: diffusing this knowledge throughout the organisation; and reusing this knowledge to inform decision-making. This paper focuses on how knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, and knowledge reuse have manifested in RWG-related research projects. To understand this, two methods were used: an audit of KM tools available to the RWG was conducted; and a secondary analysis of interview transcripts was undertaken. Together, these approaches show how KM tools have been used by the RWG in building a culture of research.
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    From practice to research at Flinders University Library: sustaining a research culture
    (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-05-03) Walkley Hall, Elizabeth
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the mechanisms used by Flinders University Library to sustain a culture of research. Flinders University Library has been supporting its librarians to undertake research projects using a formal support group mechanism, known as the Research Working Group (RWG), sanctioned and resourced by library executive since 2010. This established a culture of practitioner-based research in the library, with the librarians developing a greater understanding of both the theory and practice of qualitative and quantitative methods by undertaking their own research projects. However, sustaining a research this culture brings new challenges which this paper now explores. Design/methodology/approach This case study describes the methods used at Flinders University Library in sustaining a culture of practitioner-research. This arose from a review of the formal support structure, as well as a previous study that surveyed staff responses to the RWG. Findings As academic libraries face ongoing challenges and engage more broadly with research support, librarians need experiential knowledge of research. In the case of Flinders University Library, the author has found that, in seeking to sustain a research culture, the author has needed to adapt the support mechanisms, including a greater emphasis on peer support, a different model of resourcing and more inclusivity for all staff to engage with research work. Research limitations/implications This paper is limited by its scope as a single-institution case study; however, there are opportunities for other academic libraries to learn from this experience. Originality/value Establishing a culture of practice-based research is not an easy undertaking, requiring dedication from all parties whether management, practitioner-researchers or mentors. While there are many examples in the literature of case studies examining the establishment of research culture, few if any take the next steps to explore how to maintain it. This paper seeks to fill that gap.
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    Do University Libraries in Australia Actively Plan to Protect Special Collections from Disaster?
    (Taylor & Francis Group, 2018-10-22) Garnett, Johanna; Arbon, Paul Andrew; Howard, David; Ingham, Valerie
    Despite the increasing digitalisation of special collections, Australian university libraries continue to house tangible original works contributing to collective state, national and global heritage. The protection of special collections relates to the international aspirations provided by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 Priority 3. Currently over five hundred separately grouped university library special collections are recorded in Australia. Globally, there is limited research into university librarian comprehension of how to plan for the protection of special collections. A survey targeted the 35 Australian university libraries identified for inclusion in the study, via the Council for Australian University Librarians (CAUL) database. Eleven (31%) responses qualified for analysis. Of the respondents, the findings include 92% hold tangible special collections as part of their university library collection; 90% do not have a specific plan for the protection of special collections and 90% have experienced a disaster event at some point in their library career. The research concludes that special collections held by Australian universities are at risk and that the role of the university librarian is undervalued in the global efforts to protect cultural and historical heritage in the event of a disaster.
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    How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities
    (JMIR Publications, 2017-07-13) Damarell, Raechel; Tieman, Jennifer
    Background: Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. Objective: This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. Methods: We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. Results: We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). Conclusions: KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT’s multifaceted theories and processes in an engaging, interactive way. This learning should empower clinicians to contextualize and apply KT strategies within their own care settings.
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    Orbital Subperiosteal Hematoma in the Newborn Causing Unilateral Proptosis: Ultrasound as First-Line Imaging Modality
    (Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 2017-03-27) Angkasa, Florencia; Mohammadi, Leila; Taranath, Deepa A; Taranath, Ajay; Brecht, Marcus
    Proptosis in the neonatal period is relatively infrequent and has diverse underlying etiologies. One of the more common causes appears to be orbital subperiosteal hematoma. Early detection, differentiation from other causes, and regular follow-up are essential as loss of vision can occur. We describe two cases of neonatal proptosis caused by orbital subperiosteal hematoma highlighting different diagnostic and management approaches, and provide a summary of previously reported cases. Spontaneous resolution occurs in most cases; however, emergent surgical evacuation is warranted in cases of optic nerve compression. This is the first report to provide orbital ultrasound images of uncomplicated neonatal orbital subperiosteal hematoma. Orbital ultrasound followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valid nonradiation approach for assessing neonatal proptosis due to subperiosteal orbital hematoma.
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    The association between ethnicity and the delay time in seeking medical care for chest pain: a systematic review
    (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc., 2016-07) Wechkunanukul, Kannikar; Grantham, Hugh Jonathon; Damarell, Raechel; Clark, Robyn
    Background: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and chest pain is one of the most common symptoms of ACSs. A rapid response to chest pain by patients and appropriate management by health professionals are vital to improve survival rates. People from different ethnic groups are likely to have different perceptions of chest pain, its severity and the need for urgent treatment. These differences in perception may contribute to differences in response to chests pain and precipitate unique coping strategies. Delay in seeking medical care for chest pain in the general population has been well documented; however, limited studies have focused on delay times within ethnic groups. There is little research to date as to whether ethnicity is associated with the time taken to seek medical care for chest pain. Consequently, addressing this gap in knowledge will play a crucial role in improving the health outcomes of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients suffering from chest pain and for developing appropriate clinical practice and public awareness for these populations. Objectives: The current review aimed to determine if there is an association between ethnicity and delay in seeking medical care for chest pain among CALD populations. Inclusion criteria Types of participants: Patients from different ethnic minority groups presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with chest pain. Types of exposure: The current review will examine studies that evaluate the association between ethnicity and delay in seeking medical care for chest pain among CALD populations. Types of studies: The current review will consider quantitative studies including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, quasi-experimental, before and after studies, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and analytical cross-sectional studies. Outcomes: The current review will consider studies that measure delay time as the main outcome. The time will be measured as the interval between the time of symptom onset and time to reach an ED. Search strategy: A comprehensive search was undertaken for relevant published and unpublished studies written in English with no date restriction. All searches were conducted in October 2014. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, ProQuest (health databases only), Informit, Sociological Abstracts, Scopus and Web of Science. The search for unpublished studies included a wide range of ‘gray literature’ sources including national libraries, digital theses repositories and clinical trial registries. We also targeted specific health research, specialist cardiac, migrant health, and emergency medicine organizational websites and/or conferences. We also checked the reference lists of included studies and contacted authors when further details about reported data was required to make a decision about eligibility. Methodological quality: Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to being included in the review. Validity was assessed using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Adjudication was produced by the third reviewer. Data extraction: Data were extracted from included articles by two independent reviewers using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data synthesis: The extracted data were synthesized into a narrative summary. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of study protocols and methods used to measure outcomes. Results: A total of 10 studies, with a total of 1,511,382 participants, investigating the association between ethnicity and delay met the inclusion criteria. Delay times varied across ethnic groups, including Black, Hispanic, Asian, South Asian, Southeast Asian and Chinese. Seven studies reported delay in hours and ranged from 1.90 to 3.10 h. Delay times were longer among CALD populations than the majority population. The other three studies reported delay time in categories of time (e.g. <1, <4 and <6 h) and found larger proportions of later presentations to the EDs among ethnic groups compared with the majority groups. Conclusion: There is evidence of an association between ethnicity and time taken in seeking medical care for chest pain, with patients from some ethnic minorities (e.g. Black, Asian, Hispanic and South Asian) taking longer than those of the majority population. Health promotions and health campaigns focusing on these populations are indicated.
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    Discontinuation from Antiretroviral Therapy: A Continuing Challenge among Adults in HIV Care in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    (Public Library of Science, 2017-01-20) Gesesew, Hailay; Ward, Paul Russell; Hajito, K W; Feyissa, G T; Mohammadi, Leila; Mwanri, Lillian
    Background Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases. Only English language articles were included. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ART treatment discontinuation, i.e. ‘lost to follow up’, ‘defaulting’ and ‘stopping medication’. Meta- analysis was performed with Mantel Haenszel method using Revman-5 software. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals at a p-value of <0.05. Results Nine (9) studies met the criteria of the search. Five (5) were retrospective studies, 3 were case control studies, and 1 was a prospective cohort study. The total sample size in the included studies was 62,156. Being rural dweller (OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5–2.7, I2 = 60%), being illiterate (OR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1–2.1), being not married (OR = 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1–1.8), being alcohol drinker (OR = 2.9, 95%CI: 1.9–4.4, I2 = 39%), being tobacco smoker (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.6–4.3, I2 = 74%), having mental illness (OR = 2.7, 95%CI: 1.6–4.6, I2 = 0%) and being bed ridden functional status (OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5–3.4, I2 = 37%) were risk factors for ART discontinuation. Whereas, having HIV positive partner (OR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3–0.6, I2 = 69%) and being co-infected with Tb/HIV (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4–0.9, I2 = 0%) were protective factors. Conclusion Demographic, behavioral and clinical factors influenced ART treatment discontinuation. Hence, we recommend strengthening decentralization of HIV care services in remote areas, strengthening of ART task shifting, application of seek-test-treat-succeed model, and integration of smoking cession strategies and mental health care into the routine HIV care program.
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    Can uptake of public health interventions be improved by including grey literature in the evidence-base?
    (TextRelease, 2016-09) Tyndall, Jessica
    Interventions to prevent obesity are not working. Despite the substantial efforts of a multiplicity of interventions and strategies from the public health sector, by 2025 Australian adult obesity rates are predicted to rise by 65%. There is little doubt that increased physical activity/decreased sedentary behaviour combined with dietary intervention produces an outcome of reduced BMI: this is the science of weight loss and not in dispute, though a profusion of RCTs continue to be conducted along similar lines and academic journals continue to publish them. Policy in this area abounds but practical long-term successes remain elusive. What is often missing from the debate is acknowledgement and understanding of the public’s resistance to uptake of obesity prevention interventions. This crucial information can be gleaned from the grey literature. To be genuinely evidence-informed, policy needs to access the broadest literature base and include both published and unpublished sources. Grey literature includes surveys, public opinion, crowdsourcing, social media, theses and conference papers, issues and working papers, technical reports, unpublished studies and projects, newspapers and blogs. It is vital to consider these sources in the evidence-base to balance the science of obesity. Grey literature is where societal attitudes, beliefs, values and opinions might be reasonably expected to be found, and also where pilot programs and case studies assessing the feasibility of public health interventions will have been reported. The degree to which this literature has been accessed and incorporated into the evidence that informs policy arguably has an impact on the ultimate success or sustained “take-up” of an intervention.
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    To PC or NetPC? Hmmm …what the heck, let’s give it a go!
    (Australian Library and Information Association, 1998) Brown, Ian Lewis; Banbury, John
    Some would argue that the time for NCs or NetPCs has either not yet come or has long passed. Flinders has been watching and waiting for some time now. We had planned to try out this “new” approach in a small, controlled way in 1998, perhaps with a small server and up to 10 NetPCs. However, when university funding became available to provide 100 library workstations for student Web access to flexible delivery initiatives being developed in 1998, the Library was faced with a decision. Should we purchase 100 PC workstations with no additional staff to support this significant increase in public equipment, or should we test the theory that significant savings in application and desktop support costs can be realised with a NetPC type solution? Are they really as fast as normal PCs and are they in fact, easier to manage and support? This paper reports the reasons why the Flinders University Library chose the thin client NC solution in preference to standard fat client PCs, why we thought it particularly appropriate for student applications, how we implemented the new system, what problems we encountered and how close to reality we found the promised benefits, to both end users and system managers.
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    Electronic journal collections: cataloguing to improve access
    (Australian Library and Information Association, 1999) Banbury, John; Brown, Ian Lewis
    Traditionally, the way a library user would expect to find a journal is through the use of a title search in the library catalogue. Electronic journals should be no exception. One would expect to find a catalogue record for electronic journals, just as we do for traditional print journals. Integrated citation/journal collections and electronic journal collections produced by IAC, Academic Press and Johns Hopkins Press and other vendors complicate this issue. Such collections, although a very good product for many libraries, are difficult to catalogue at the journal level. It is a simple task to create a catalogue record for "Expanded Academic Index" or "Project Muse" at the collection level, but doing only this would diminish the usefulness and value of the collection. In the end, all a journal user wants is to read it. This is a principal service that libraries offer to their users. However, the way that an electronic journal is catalogued plays a significant role in the quality of the service the user receives, and the likelihood that the user will effectively find the journal he or she needs. It is obvious that few libraries would have the staff resources to manually catalogue these journal collections at the title level. This paper outlines the approach and system that Flinders University Library has devised to “semiautomatically” add catalogue records to maximise user benefit from the integrated citation/journal collections and electronic journal collections to which it subscribes.
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    Fat or thin? Is the verdict in?
    (Australian Library and Information Association, 2000) Banbury, John; Brown, Ian Lewis
    ABSTRACT Thin client or network computing is a hot topic. The hype claims lower total cost of ownership, faster applications deployment and reduced management pain, compared to traditional computing architectures. Early in 1998 the Flinders University Library installed network computers in the Central and branch libraries for student access to the Internet. This paper is a review of network computers in the light of our experience over the past two years. Do network computers offer all that is claimed in the hype? Are there hidden costs? What are the issues of configuration, server scaling, network performance and fault diagnosis? Do they have a future in the Library arena?
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    Facilitating access to evidence: Primary Health Care Search Filter
    (2014) Brown, Lynsey; Carne, Amanda; Bywood, Petra Teresia; McIntyre, Ellen; Damarell, Raechel; Tieman, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mikaela
    Background: The evidence base developed by, and relevant to, primary health care (PHC) is rapidly increasing. With the wealth of literature available, searchers trying to find PHC-specific citations can feel overwhelmed. Objectives: Flinders Filters and the Primary Health Care Research & Information Service collaborated to develop a search filter enabling efficient and effective retrieval of relevant PHC literature. Methods: Stage 1 involved developing a PHC Search Filter in the OvidSP Medline platform using a rigor-ous experimental methodology. The search filter was then translated for Web-based ‘one-click searching’ in PubMed during Stage 2. Stage 3 involved planning and implementing a mixed-methods evaluation. Results: The search filter sensitivity was 77.0% with a post hoc relevance assessment of 78 .3%. Four months after its launch, a mixed-methods study evaluated the PHC Search Filter. With 90 respondents, analysis of data from the online survey demonstrated overarching benefits, a positive response to the tool and directions for further refinement of the PHC Search Filter. Discussion: Designing the PHC Search Filter follow ed an established method that ensures the tool offers a validated search strategy. Evaluation results suggest that the PHC Search Filter is a useful tool that is easy to navigate. Challenges for the Filter relate to access to full text articles, while challenges for the evaluation relate to the small sample size. Conclusions: The PHC Search Filter reduces the burden associated with literature searching, increases the value of the results that are received and provides a useful resource to improve the likelihood of incorporating relevant evidence into policy and practice.
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    Primary Health Care (PHC) Search Filter: Bringing the evidence to shore
    (Primary Health Care Research and Information Service, 2013) Brown, Lynsey; Carne, Amanda; McIntyre, Ellen; Tieman, Jennifer; Damarell, Raechel; Sladek, Ruth; Hagger, Christina; Katterl, Rachel
    Surfing the internet for primary health care (PHC) literature produces waves of information that can lead a researcher to feel as though they are drowning in papers. Sifting through material to find the oysters containing pearls can be a complex task. With the PHC literature and evidence base rapidly increasing, Flinders Filters and the Primary Health Care Research & Information Service collaborated on a project to develop a search filter designed to facilitate easier access to this pool of PHC resources, by enabling efficient and effective retrieval of relevant literature. The PHC Search Filter was developed in the Ovid Medline platform with an extensive methodology comprising five phases including: constructing a gold standard set of PHC-specific articles; identifying relevant index terms and textwords; testing combinations of search terms; assessing the search strategy which performed most effectively; and translating the filter for use in PubMed to enable ‘one click searching’. This presentation will introduce the PHC Search Filter, addressing its development and showcasing the tool through an audiovisual ‘how to’ segment. In addition, the presentation will report on a mixed-methods study used to evaluate the Filter, four months after its launch. This evaluation involved extensive advertising of an online survey with individuals invited to participate regardless of whether they had used the Filter or not. With 90 respondents, the survey provided details about the overarching benefits and positive response to the tool, and directions for further refinement of the Filter. The key findings from the evaluation noted that the PHC Search Filter reduces the burden associated with literature searching, increases the value of the results that are received, and provides a useful resource to improve the likelihood of incorporating evidence into policy and practice.
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    Participatory Research as One Piece of the Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Consumer Involvement in Design of Technology-Based Youth Mental Health and Well-Being Interventions
    (JMIR Publications, 2015-07) Orlowski, Simone; Lawn, Sharon Joy; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan
    Background: Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective: To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods: Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results: A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable interventions. It was not possible to determine the impact of participatory research on intervention effectiveness due to lack of outcome data. Planning for or having pre-existing implementation sites assisted implementation. The review also revealed a lack of theory-based design and process evaluation. Conclusions: Consumer consultations helped shape intervention design. However, with little evidence of outcomes and a lack of implementation following piloting, the value of participatory research remains unclear.
  • Item fast tracking access to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature
    (CSIRO Publishing, 2014-08) Tieman, Jennifer; Lawrence, Mikaela; Damarell, Raechel; Sladek, Ruth; Nikolof, Arwen
    Objective: To develop and validate a PubMed search filter,, that automatically retrieves Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health literature, and to make it publicly accessible through the Lowitja Institute website. Methods: Search filter development phases included: (a) scoping of the publication characteristics of Aboriginal and Torres Start Islander literature, (b) Advisory Group input and review, (c) systematic identification and testing of MeSH and text word terms, (d) relevance assessment of the search filter’s retrieved items, and (e) translation for use in PubMed through the web. Results: Scoping study analyses demonstrated complexity in the nature and use of possible search terms and publication characteristics. The search filter achieved a recall rate of 83.1% in the test set. To determine real world performance, post-hoc assessment of items retrieved by the search filter in PubMed was undertaken with 87.1% of articles deemed as relevant. The search filter was constructed as a series of URL hyperlinks to enable one-click searching. Conclusion: is a search tool that facilitates research into practice for improving outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and is publicly available on the Lowitja Institute website.
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    Deathbed phenomena reported by patients in palliative care: clinical opportunities and responses
    (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2015) Devery, Kim Ellen; Rawlings, Deb; Tieman, Jennifer; Damarell, Raechel
    Over many decades and across many cultures and disciplines, the scientific literature reports unusual and hard to explain phenomena at the end of life. In the palliative care literature these reports are often anecdotal (Nelson, 2000), poorly understood or even treated just as hallucination (Morse 1994). In practice though, many health professionals have heard accounts from ill and dying patients of difficult to explain events (Pflaum and Kelley 1986, Wimbush and Hardie 2001, Mazzarino-Willett 2010) and while health professionals need also to recognise hallucinations arising from delirium, dementia or other neurologic or psychiatric disorders, underlying causality for these experiences may not be obvious or attributable. We have adopted the term Death Bed Phenomena (DBP) described here by Brayne and colleagues (2006, Page 17): “death may be heralded by deathbed phenomena such as visions that comfort the dying and prepare them spiritually for death” although these unexplainable accounts range from seeing dead relatives, hearing or feeling “other worlds” (Fenwick and Brayne, 2012), a significant dream, or patients being aware of the time of their own death. Patients and carers can be reluctant to discuss or divulge these phenomena for fear of being labelled ‘mad’ (Barbato et al, 1999) and health professionals (professionally trained and primarily educated in biomedical, scientific or rational models and ways of thinking) can find this a perplexing issue leaving them unsure how to respond to their patients’ stories and accounts (Brayne et al, 2006). In a quest to understand the clinical potential around these phenomena, we undertook this systematic review of the literature, with a specific focus on the palliative care population for whom death is an expected and foreseeable event due to progressive illness. While postulations on possible causes of these extraordinary end of life phenomena can be fascinating to read (Blanke, 2004), such phenomena are real for those who experience them. “Assumptions about their origins and credibility can alienate” patients and their families “at a critical time in their mourning or dying” (Barbato et al, 1999). Like others (Brayne et al 2006, Fenwick and Brayne 2011), Barbato and colleagues (1999) raise the potential within our professional role to normalise the experience and encourage the patient to find solace and emotional and spiritual wellbeing. In an effort to understand more fully these phenomena and their impact, health professionals, sociologists, psychologists and others have explored patient accounts of difficult to explain events and occurrences. Studies describing deathbed phenomena (DBP) (Barrett 1926, Sartori 2010) and near death experiences (NDE) (Morse 1994, Alvarado 2006, Bell et al 2010) emphasise the supportive spiritual potential of DBP (Ethier 2005, Fenwick and Brayne 2011), suggest additional therapies to further interpret DBP (Iordache and MacLeod, 2011), and put forward specific approaches for children and adolescents who experience NDE (Bell et al, 2010). DBP has been distinguished from NDE with the latter usually describing an unusual event or experience preceding an unexpected or accidental near death, or reported after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. While the nomenclature and definitions of DBP are developing in the literature, a comprehensive review about these occurrences reported by patients in a palliative care context is not available. DBP may be of especial significance in this population where cure is not possible and death at some point is a foreseeable event.
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    Practitioner research in an academic library: evaluating the impact of a support group
    (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2014-05) Walkley Hall, Elizabeth; McBain, Ian
    This paper explores how a support group has contributed to building a culture of research practice at Flinders University Library. The brief of the Research Working Group (RWG) is to develop a culture of research and professional reflection in the library’s professional staff. The RWG has three broad goals against which to measure its impact: to develop the professional staff's skills with regard to research engagement; to encourage analysis and investigation of the Library’s services and resources; and to engage more widely with the library profession and the wider higher education community through presentation and publication of research results. Professional staff completed a questionnaire examining their participation in research, their confidence in undertaking research, and plans for future research projects. The results were analysed with reference to the first goal of the RWG. The importance of practitioners undertaking research is increasingly being recognised as a core value in academic libraries. Many support groups for librarians undertaking research have been described in the literature, but few have evaluated the impact of such a group. This paper seeks to evaluate the impact of the RWG on the professional staff at Flinders University Library to date.
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    Development of a heart failure filter for Medline: an objective approach using evidence-based clinical practice guidelines as an alternative to hand searching
    (BioMed Central Ltd., 2011-01-28) Damarell, Raechel; Tieman, Jennifer; Sladek, Ruth; Davidson, Patricia
    Background: Heart failure is a highly debilitating syndrome with a poor prognosis primarily affecting the elderly. Clinicians wanting timely access to heart failure evidence to provide optimal patient care can face many challenges in locating this evidence. This study developed and validated a search filter of high clinical utility for the retrieval of heart failure articles in OvidSP Medline. Methods: A Clinical Advisory Group was established to advise study investigators. The study set of 876 relevant articles from four heart failure clinical practice guidelines was divided into three datasets: a Term Identification Set, a Filter Development Set, and a Filter Validation Set. A further validation set (the Cochrane Validation Set) was formed using studies included in Cochrane heart failure systematic reviews. Candidate search terms were identified via word frequency analysis. The filter was developed by creating combinations of terms and recording their performance in retrieving items from the Filter Development Set. The filter’s recall was then validated in both the Filter Validation Set and the Cochrane Validation Set. A precision estimate was obtained post-hoc by running the filter in Medline and screening the first 200 retrievals for relevance to heart failure. Results: The four-term filter achieved a recall of 96.9% in the Filter Development Set; 98.2% in the Filter Validation Set; and 97.8% in the Cochrane Validation Set. Of the first 200 references retrieved by the filter when run in Medline, 150 were deemed relevant and 50 irrelevant. The post-hoc precision estimate was therefore 75%. Conclusions: This study describes an objective method for developing a validated heart failure filter of high recall performance and then testing its precision post-hoc. Clinical practice guidelines were found to be a feasible alternative to hand searching in creating a gold standard for filter development. Guidelines may be especially appropriate given their clinical utility. A validated heart failure filter is now available to support health professionals seeking reliable and efficient access to the heart failure literature.
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    OvidSP Medline-to-PubMed search filter translation: a methodology for extending search filter range to include PubMed's unique content
    (BioMed Central Ltd., 2013-07-02) Damarell, Raechel; Tieman, Jennifer; Sladek, Ruth
    Background: PubMed translations of OvidSP Medline search filters offer searchers improved ease of access. They may also facilitate access to PubMed’s unique content, including citations for the most recently published biomedical evidence. Retrieving this content requires a search strategy comprising natural language terms (‘textwords’), rather than Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We describe a reproducible methodology that uses a validated PubMed search filter translation to create a textword-only strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed’s unique heart failure literature. Methods: We translated an OvidSP Medline heart failure search filter for PubMed and established version equivalence in terms of indexed literature retrieval. The PubMed version was then run within PubMed to identify citations retrieved by the filter’s MeSH terms (Heart failure, Left ventricular dysfunction, and Cardiomyopathy). It was then rerun with the same MeSH terms restricted to searching on title and abstract fields (i.e. as ‘textwords’). Citations retrieved by the MeSH search but not the textword search were isolated. Frequency analysis of their titles/ abstracts identified natural language alternatives for those MeSH terms that performed less effectively as textwords. These terms were tested in combination to determine the best performing search string for reclaiming this ‘lost set’. This string, restricted to searching on PubMed’s unique content, was then combined with the validated PubMed translation to extend the filter’s performance in this database. Results: The PubMed heart failure filter retrieved 6829 citations. Of these, 834 (12%) failed to be retrieved when MeSH terms were converted to textwords. Frequency analysis of the 834 citations identified five high frequency natural language alternatives that could improve retrieval of this set (cardiac failure, cardiac resynchronization, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, and LV dysfunction). Together these terms reclaimed 157/834 (18.8%) of lost citations. Conclusions: MeSH terms facilitate precise searching in PubMed’s indexed subset. They may, however, work less effectively as search terms prior to subject indexing. A validated PubMed search filter can be used to develop a supplementary textword-only search strategy to extend retrieval to PubMed’s unique content. A PubMed heart failure search filter is available on the CareSearch website ( providing access to both indexed and non-indexed heart failure evidence.