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Item11th Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology 2003 (ISMB2003)(Hindawi, 2003-09) Abbott, Catherine AnneThis report profiles the keynote talks given at ISMB03 in Brisbane, Australia by Ron Shamir, David Haussler, John Mattick, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Sydney Brenner, theOverton Prize winner, Jim Kent, and the ISCB Senior Accomplishment Awardee,David Sankov. Item"1408" directed by Mikael Hafstrom [review](Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2007-11-22) Prescott, Nicholas Adrian1408 is a puzzling film, in many ways. It’s puzzling primarily because John Cusack is in it, and it’s not a very good film. This is an oddity, in my opinion; the ever-likeable Cusack very rarely steps out of line, usually pairing engaging turns as co-writer with canny role choices onscreen. Sadly, this, Cusack’s latest outing as a leading man, is a very dull experience; he neither wrote nor produced nor executive-anythinged it; indeed it seems suspiciously like he might have been offered too good a deal as an actor to refuse, and that he took the money and ran. Don’t get me wrong, he’s fun to watch, and he plays the not-quite-average-Joe with great skill, but it’s all in service of a film that you’re likely to forget the moment the final credits’ reflection fades from your eyeballs. Item"16 Blocks" directed by Richard Donner [review](Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2006-08-03) Prescott, NickTo say that audiences haven’t heard much of Bruce Willis lately isn’t quite accurate; the actor has voiced a number of animated characters recently, even if he hasn’t appeared in the visual sense terribly often. As a man who became a superstar in the 1980s, Willis doesn’t need to work constantly; I’m sure the villa in Tuscany or the castle in the Scottish Highlands would have been comfortably paid for by now. It’s interesting, then, to observe the kinds of roles that will draw Bruce back in front of the cameras: with 16 Blocks, the actor is returning to the kind of grungy, unshaven, hard-drinking cop he played in the third Die Hard film. ItemAn 180 MHz 16 bit multiplier using asynchronous logic design techniques(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society (IEEE Publishing), 1994) Burford, Richard G; Fan, Xingcha; Bergmann, Neil WA CMOS digital logic design technique is described which exploits the advantages of fast precharged logic and efficient latch design commonly used in synchronous systems while maintaining the features of localized control inherent in asynchronous design. A pipelined sixteen bit multiplier is presented and its performance compared with several previously reported asynchronous and synchronous designs. Item2014 Budget, policy versus politics: seven or 126 taxes?(LexisNexis, 2014-05) Kenny, PaulThe 2014 Federal Budget's budget deficit debt levy arguably takes Australia from 125 to 126 taxes. With the high probability of significant tax reform under the new federal Liberal Coalition government, it is pertinent to reflect on the findings of recent major tax reviews in Australia (the 2009 Henry Review),1 as well as in the United Kingdom (the 2011 Mirrlees Review)2 on possible future directions. There is much similarity in the opinions of these two reviews as to what constitutes a sensible tax system. From examining their findings, this article distils seven generally broad taxes that could replace the current 126 taxes. However, the politics of tax reform is all consuming. Item‘25 degrees of separation’ versus the ‘ease of doing it closer to home’: Motivations to offshore surrogacy arrangements amongst Australian citizens(Edinburgh University Press, 2015-03) Riggs, Damien WayneAt present, onshore commercial surrogacy is illegal in all Australian states and territories. By contrast, offshore commercial surrogacy is legal in all bar one territory and two states. As a result, significant numbers of Australian citizens undertake travel each year to enter into commercial surrogacy arrangements. The present paper reports on findings derived from interview data collected with 21 Australian citizens who had children through an offshore commercial surrogacy arrangement, either in India or the United States. Framed by an understanding of the vulnerability that arises from the demand of reproductive citizenship, the analysis focuses specifically on whether or not the participants would have entered into an onshore commercial surrogacy arrangement had this been legal at the time. The findings suggest that for some participants, undertaking surrogacy ‘at a distance’ was perceived to be safer and provided a degree of privacy, whilst for other participants surrogacy closer to home would have removed some of the more challenging aspects of offshore arrangements. With these findings in mind, the paper concludes by considering Millbank’s (2014) suggestion that Australian states and territories should legalise onshore commercial surrogacy, and the barriers that may exist to the uptake of such potential legal change. ItemA 3-year follow-up study of inpatients with lower limb ulcers: evidence of an obesity paradox?(Dove Press, 2012-08-09) Miller, Michelle Deanne; Delaney, Christopher; Penna, Deanna; Liang, Lilian; Thomas, Jolene Marie; Puckridge, Phillip; Spark, James IObjectives: To determine whether body composition is related to long-term outcomes amongst vascular inpatients with lower limb ulcers. Design: Prospective study with 3 years follow-up. Materials and methods: Body mass index (BMI), fat, and fat-free mass were measured and associations with readmission to hospital (number, cause, length of stay) and all-cause mortality were explored. Results: Thirty patients (22 men, 8 women) participated in the study. Ten patients (33%) had a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. 18/20 (90%) patients with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 and 9/10 (90%) patients with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 were admitted to hospital in the 3 years of follow-up. Patients with a BMI < 30 kg/m2 were admitted more frequently, earlier and for longer compared to those with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 but these did not reach statistical significance. The 3 year mortality rate for patients with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 20% (n = 2/10) compared to 70% (n = 14/20) with a BMI <30 kg/m2, P = 0.019. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that higher BMI may have a protective effect against mortality in vascular patients with lower limb ulcers. These findings contradict the universal acceptance that obesity leads to poor health outcomes. Further work is required to confirm these findings and explore some of the potential mechanisms for this effect. Item"3:10 To Yuma" directed by James Mangold [review](2008-02-14) Prescott, Nicholas AdrianFifty years ago, Elmore Leonard (these days most revered as a crime writer, whose novels include Get Shorty, Out of Sight and Killshot, which has also just been filmed) wrote a short story called 3:10 to Yuma. It centred around the struggle to escort a nasty stagecoach-robber and gunslinger, Ben Wade (here played by Russell Crowe) to a train that would transport him to Yuma prison. Delmer Daves directed a film version in 1957 which starred Van Heflin and Glenn Ford, and which was well-received as a decent Western made during the classical Hollywood cycle. These days of course, really good, traditional Westerns are few and far between, but James Mangold’s updating and remake of Leonard’s story proves to be a terrific return to this tried and true genre. Mainly for lads it may well be, but it’s a hell of a pic if you fit the demographic. ItemThe 3D CVE as a cross-cultural classroom(Episode Publishers, 2006) Wyeld, Theodor; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina; Chang, Teng WenMuch architectural design work increasingly addresses an international audience. But many designers continue to work in isolation. In practice, however, their work includes international collaboration. This requires cross-cultural understandings with their cocollaborators. There are few opportunities for this to occur in a pedagogical setting. The 3D co-located laboratory (3DCollab) described in this paper was used as a cross-cultural exchange platform to address the need for design students to practice collaborating remotely. What the 3DCollab did was to facilitate cross-cultural exchange in a fun and informative environment where learning was constructed and played out in a 3D virtual environment (3DVE). The project involved students across three cooperating institutions: The University of Queensland (Australia); the National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); and, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim (Norway). It builds on previous exercises conducted by the authors. As far as the authors of this paper are aware this is the first e-learning application to focus on crosscultural understanding in a 3DVE. Item3D information visualisation: an historical perspective(IEEE, 2005-07) Wyeld, TheodorThe use of 3D visualisation of digital information is a recent phenomenon. It relies on users understanding 3D perspectival spaces. Questions about the universal access of such spaces has been debated since its inception in the European Renaissance. Perspective has since become a strong cultural influence in Western visual communication. Perspective imaging assists the process of experimenting by the sketching or modelling of ideas. In particular, the recent 3D modelling of an essentially non-dimensional Cyber-space raises questions of how we think about information in general. While alternate methods clearly exist they are rarely explored within the 3D paradigm (such as Chinese isometry). This paper seeks to generate further discussion on the historical background of perspective and its role in underpinning this emergent field. Item3D Mapping of the Submerged Crowie Barge Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography(Hindawi, 2018-05-08) Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Moffat, Ian Alexander; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kowlessar, Jarrad; Bailey, MarianThis study explores the applicability and effectiveness of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as a tool for the high-resolution mapping of submerged and buried shipwrecks in 3D. This approach was trialled through modelling and field studies of Crowie, a paddle steamer barge which sunk at anchor in the Murray River at Morgan, South Australia, in the late 1950s. The mainly metallic structure of the ship is easily recognisable in the ERT data and was mapped in 3D both subaqueously and beneath the sediment-water interface. The innovative and successful use of ERT in this case study demonstrates that 3D ERT can be used for the detailed mapping of submerged cultural material. It will be particularly useful where other geophysical and diver based mapping techniques may be inappropriate due to shallow water depths, poor visibility, or other constraints. Item3D remote design collaboration: a pedagogical case study of the cross-cultural issues raised(IEEE, 2007-04) Wyeld, Theodor; Prasolova-Forland, Ekaterina; Chang, Teng WenMuch architectural design work increasingly addresses an international audience. But many designers continue to work in isolation. In practice, however, their work includes international collaboration. This requires cross-cultural understandings with their co-collaborators. There are few opportunities for this to occur in a pedagogical setting. The 3D co-located laboratory (3DCollab) described in this paper was used as a cross-cultural exchange platform to address the need for design students to practice collaborating remotely. What the 3DCollab did was to facilitate cross-cultural exchange in a fun and informative environment where learning was constructed and played out in a 3D virtual environment (3DVE). The project involved students across three cooperating institutions: The University of Queensland (Australia); the National Yunlin University of Science and Technology (Taiwan); and, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim (Norway). It builds on previous exercises conducted by the authors. As far as the authors of this paper are aware this is the first e-learning application to focus on cross-cultural understanding in a 3DVE. Item"44 Inch Chest" directed by Malcolm Venille [review](Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 2010-11-12) Prescott, NickI can’t quite believe that it was almost ten years ago that I was raving to everyone I knew about an independent film from England called Sexy Beast. The great Ray Winstone (who began his career on TV in Robin of Sherwood, of all things) gave a bravura performance as Gal, a retired British criminal living on the Costa del Sol, laying low and enjoying the sunshine. Into his idyllic retirement came the terrifying Don – a genuinely frightening Ben Kingsley – whose mission was to entice Gal back to Blighty for one last job. The fireworks began there and didn’t let up for another 100 minutes; Sexy Beast was the most bracing, hilarious, tense and unmissable film about British criminality and masculinity to come along for years. Item5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon by mechanisms independent of endogenous 5-HT(Frontiers, 2013-08) Sia, TC; Whiting, Malcolm John; Kyloh, Melinda; Nicholas, Sarah J; Oliver, John Reginald; Brookes, Simon Jonathan; Dinning, Phillip; Wattchow, David Anthony; Spencer, Nicholas JohnRecent studies have shown that endogenous serotonin is not required for colonic peristalsis in vitro, nor gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. However, antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors can inhibit peristalsis and GI-transit in mammals, including humans. This raises the question of how these antagonists inhibit GI-motility and transit, if depletion of endogenous 5-HT does not cause any significant inhibitory changes to either GI-motility or transit? We investigated the mechanism by which 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit distension-evoked peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon. In control animals, repetitive peristaltic contractions of the circular muscle were evoked in response to fixed fecal pellet distension. Distension-evoked peristaltic contractions were unaffected in animals with mucosa and submucosal plexus removed, that were also treated with reserpine (to deplete neuronal 5-HT). In control animals, peristaltic contractions were blocked temporarily by ondansetron (1–10 μM) and SDZ-205–557 (1–10 μM) in many animals. Interestingly, after this temporary blockade, and whilst in the continued presence of these antagonists, peristaltic contractions recovered, with characteristics no different from controls. Surprisingly, similar effects were seen in mucosa-free preparations, which had no detectable 5-HT, as detected by mass spectrometry. In summary, distension-evoked peristaltic reflex contractions of the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig colon can be inhibited temporarily, or permanently, in the same preparation by selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists, depending on the concentration of the antagonists applied. These effects also occur in preparations that lack any detectable 5-HT. We suggest caution should be exercised when interpreting the effects of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists; and the role of endogenous 5-HT, in the generation of distension-evoked colonic peristalsis. ItemThe $6 million net asset value test for small business(LexisNexis, 2014-07) Kenny, Paul; Blissenden, MichaelTaxpayers who seek to disregard a capital gain under the small business capital gains tax (CGT) concessions regime are likely to be audited and those who are not formally audited may face a phone review. The Australian Taxation Office’s (ATO’s) focus on a single aspect of this concessional regime is reflected in issues examined in some recent cases. Small business operators and their advisers need to be vigilant in planning for and applying the $6 million maximum net asset value test ($6 million test), an alternative requirement, within the second of the four basic conditions. ItemThe 7Li(p,n)7 Be Reaction as a Source of Fast Neutrons for Smaller Compact Cyclotrons(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Computer Society (IEEE Publishing), 1979) Chaudhri, M Anwar; Templer, J.; Rouse, J LThe usefulness of the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction as a fast neutron source for applications, such as neutron therapy etc., using smaller compact cyclotrons (proton energies of up to 15-18 MeV) has been investigated by measuring thin and thick target neutron spectra, absolute cross sections and angular distributions of various neutron groups produced in this reaction at 10.45 MeV. Our results indicate that the forward direction is still the preferred one for obtaining the most suitable fast neutron beam for biomedical application, and that moderately thick, rather than infinitely thick, target would provide higher mean energy. Moreover, it has also been shown that the 7Li(p,n)7 Be reaction is more suited for producing neutron beams for therapy than proton and deuteron induced reactions on Be at corresponding energies, and that a therapeutically useful neutron beam can be produced even with smaller compact cyclotrons. ItemA biolistic method for high-throughput production of transgenic wheat plants with single gene insertions(BioMed Central, 2018-06-26) Ismagul, Ainur; Yang, Nannan; Maltseva, Elina; Iskakova, Gulnur; Mazonka, Inna; Skiba, Yuri; Bi, Huihui; Eliby, Serik; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Shavrukov, Yuri; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Langridge, PeterBackground The relatively low efficiency of biolistic transformation and subsequent integration of multiple copies of the introduced gene/s significantly complicate the genetic modification of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and other plant species. One of the key factors contributing to the reproducibility of this method is the uniformity of the DNA/gold suspension, which is dependent on the coating procedure employed. It was also shown recently that the relative frequency of single copy transgene inserts could be increased through the use of nanogram quantities of the DNA during coating. Results A simplified DNA/gold coating method was developed to produce fertile transgenic plants, via microprojectile bombardment of callus cultures induced from immature embryos. In this method, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and magnesium salt solutions were utilized in place of the spermidine and calcium chloride of the standard coating method, to precipitate the DNA onto gold microparticles. The prepared microparticles were used to generate transgenics from callus cultures of commercial bread wheat cv. Gladius resulting in an average transformation frequency of 9.9%. To increase the occurrence of low transgene copy number events, nanogram amounts of the minimal expression cassettes containing the gene of interest and the hpt gene were used for co-transformation. A total of 1538 transgenic wheat events were generated from 15,496 embryos across 19 independent experiments. The variation of single copy insert frequencies ranged from 16.1 to 73.5% in the transgenic wheat plants, which compares favourably to published results. Conclusions The DNA/gold coating procedure presented here allows efficient, large scale transformation of wheat. The use of nanogram amounts of vector DNA improves the frequency of single copy transgene inserts in transgenic wheat plants. ItemA comparison of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR metabolic axis response to global ischaemia in brain, heart, liver and kidney in a rat model of cardiac arrest(BioMed Central, 2018-06-19) Majd, Shohreh; Power, John Henry; Chataway, Timothy Kennion; Grantham, Hugh JonathonAbstract Background Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism. Energy stress, however, could be sensed at different levels in various tissues, leading to applying different strategies in response to hypoxic insults. Methods Here the immediate strategies of high metabolic rate organs to time-dependent short episodes of ischaemia were studied by using a rat model (n = 6/group) of cardiac arrest (CA) (15 and 30 s, 1, 2, 4 and 8 min CA). Using western blot analysis, we examined the responses of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR pathway in brain, heart, liver and kidney from 15 s up to 8 min of global ischaemia. The ratio of ADP/ATP was assessed in all ischemic and control groups, using ApoSENSOR bioluminescent assay kit. Results Brain, followed by kidney showed the early dephosphorylation response in AMPK (Thr172) and LKB1 (Ser431); in the absence of ATP decline (ADP/ATP elevation). Dephosphorylation of AMPK was followed by rephosphorylation and hyperphosphorylation, which was associated with a significant ATP decline. While heart’s activity of AMPK and LKB1 remained at the same level during short episodes of ischaemia, liver’s LKB1 was dephosphorylated after 2 min. AMPK response to ischaemia in liver was mainly based on an early alternative and a late constant hyperphosphorylation. No significant changes was observed in mTOR activity in all groups. Conclusion Together our results suggest that early AMPK dephosphorylation followed by late hyperphosphorylation is the strategy of brain and kidney in response to ischaemia. While the liver seemed to get benefit of its AMPK system in early ischameia, possibly to stabilize ATP, the level of LKB1/AMPK activity in heart remained unchanged in short ischaemic episodes up to 8 min. Further researches must be conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying LKB1/AMPK response to oxygen supply.